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Chap.4 Sec. 1-2

The Rock Cycle, Igneous Rock

A naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter is called a rock
The continual process by which new rock forms from old rock is called the rock cycle
Rocks have been used used by humans throughout history for tools, weapons, and buildings
Which of the following forces affects rock deep beneath Earth's surface? pressure
A rock at the Earth's surface is primarily affected by forces of weathering and erosion
A rock deep underground is primarily affected by forces of extreme heat and pressure
What kind of new material is formed when metamorphic rock melts? magma
What kind of new rock is formed when igneous rock is subjected to weathering, erosion, compaction, and cementation? sedimentary rock
What kind of new rock is formed when sedimentary rock is subjected to heat and pressure? metamorphic rock
magma in the Earth's crust that has risen to the Earths surface and cools and solidifies igneous rock
rock that is forced downward and is exposed to heat and pressure metamorphic rock
rocks that are partially or completely melted magma
igneous rock at the Earth's surface that is weathered and wears away sediment
sediment that washes down into rivers and oceans and is pressed and cemented together sedimentary rock
The process in which water, wind, ice, and heat break down rocks is called weathering
One reason that weathering is important is because it breaks rock down into fragments, or ____, from which sedimentary rocks are made sediment
The process by which sediment is removed from its source is called erosion
During __, sediment is deposited in bodies of water and other low-lying areas deposition
Sedimentary rock can be made when sediment is pressed and cemented together by __ dissolve in water. minerals
Some __ rock is made when sediment is squeezed by the weight of the rock materials that lies above it sedimentary
Movement within the Earth that causes buried rock to be exposed at the Earth's surface is called uplift
When uplifted rocks reach __, weathering, erosion, and deposition begin Earth's surface
Beyond the three basic types of rock, rocks can be divided into subcategories based on composition and texture
What is the chemical makeup, or mineral content, of a rock based on? its composition
A rock that consists mostly of the mineral quartz will have a composition very similar to quartz
What do the size, shape, and positions of the grains that make up a rock determine? the rock's texture
What factors can affect the texture of a sedimentary rock? the size of the grains that make up the rock
What factors can affect the texture of an igneous rock? the length of time the magma had to cool
What factor can affect the texture of a metamorphic rock? the pressure and temperature the rock was exposed to
Created by: Joe McGill