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Anatomy for recruits

definitions

QuestionAnswer
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) Heart attack; death of heart muscle following obstruction of blood flow to it. Acute in this context means "new" or "happening right now."
Adduction Motion of limb toward the midline.
Abduction Motion of a limb away from the midline.
Advance Directive Written documentation that specifies medical treatment for a competent patient should the patient become unable to make decisions; also called a living will.
Agonal Respirations Slow, gasping respirations, sometimes seen in dying patients.
Alveoli The air sacs of the lungs in which the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.
Abandonment Unilateral termination of care by the EMT-B without the patient's consent and wothout making provisions for transferring care to another medical proffessional with skills at the same level or higher.
paradoxical motion The motion of the portion of the chest wall that is detached in a flair chest; the motion - during exhalation - is exactly the opposite of normal chest wall motion during breathing.
negligence Failure to provide the same care that a person with similar training would provide.
multigravida A woman who has had more than one live birth.
pedal edema Swelling of the feet and ankles caused by collection of fluid in the tissues; a possible sign of congestive heart failure (CHF)
Prone position The position in which the body is lying face down.
primigravida A woman who is experiencing her first pregnancy.
supine position The position in which the body is lying face up.
stroke A loss of brain function in certain brain cells that do not get enough oxygen during a CVA. Usually caused by obstruction of the blood vessels in the brain that feed oxygen to those brain cells.
tachycardia Rapid heart rhythm, more than 100 beats/min.
trade name The brand name that a manufacturer gives a medication; capitalizied.
tension pnemothorax An accumulation of air or gas in the pleural cavity that progressively increases the pressure in the chest with potentially fatal results.
white blood cells Blood cells that play a role in the body's immune defense mechanisms agains infection; also called luekocytes.
Tidal volume The amount of air that is delivered to the lungs and airways in one inhalation.
Duty to act A medicolegal term relating to certain personnel who either by statute or by function have a responsibility to provide care.
dyspnea Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing.
distal Structures that are farther from the trunk or nearer to the free end of the extremity.
direct ground lift A lifting technique that is used for patients who are found lying supine on the ground with no suspected spinal injury.
maxillae The upper jawbones that assist in the formation of the orbit, the nasal cavity, and the palate, and lodge the upper teeth.
mandible The bone of the lower jaw.
Infarction Death of a body tissue, usually caused by interruption of its blood supply.
Informed consent Permission for treatment given by a competent patient after the potential risks, benefits, and atternatives to treatment have been explained.
Implied consent Type of consent in which a patient who is unable to give consent is given treatment under the legal assumtion that he or she would want treatment.
ischemia A lack of oxygen that deprives tissues of necessary nutrients, resulting from partial or comlete blockage of blood flow; potentially reversible since permanent injury has not yet occured.
flail chest A condition in which three or more ribs are fractured in two or more places, or in association with a fracture of the sternum, so that a segment of chest
cyanosis Bluish-gray skin color that is caused by reduced oxygen levels in the blood.
convection The loss of body heat caused by air movement (eg. breeze blowing across the body)
avulsion An injury in which soft tissue either is torn completely loose or is hanging as a flap.
aspiration The introduction of vomit or other foreign material into the lungs.
arteriosclerosis A disease that is characterized by hardening, thickening, and calcification of the arterial walls.
atherosclerosis A disorder in which cholesterol and calcium build up inside the walls of blood vessels, forming plaque, which eventually leads to partial or complete blockage of blood flow. An atherosclerotic plaque can also become a site where blood clots can form, bre
autonomic nervous system The part of the nervous system that regulates functions, such as digestion and sweating, that are not controlled vountarily.
apnea Absence of breathing
Epistaxis A nosebleed
alveoli The air sacs of the lungs in which the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.
auscultation A method of listening to sounds within an organ with a stethoscope.
bilateral A body part or condition that appears on both sides of the midline.
diabetic ketoacididosis A form of acidosis in uncontrolled diabetes in which certain acids accumulate when insulin is not available.
decompensated shock The late stage of shock, when blood pressure is falling.
edema The presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid between cells in body tissues, causing swelling of the affected areas.
eclampsia Convulsions (seizures) resulting from severe hypertension in the pregnant woman.
distal Structures that are farther from the trunk or nearer to the free end of the extremity.
emesis Vomiting
kinetic energy The energy of a moving object
Kussmaul respirations Deep, rapid breathing; usually the result of an accumulation of certain acids when insulin is not available in the body.
ischemic stroke One of the two main types of stroke; occurs when blood flow to a particular part of the brain is cut off by a blockage (eg. clot) inside a blood vessel.
myocardium The heart muscle.
Created by: mary hart