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Sterols type of lipid found in plants and animals
structure of unsaturated fatty acids contains carbons not saturated with H
what causes things to go rancid? oxygen damage
what mostly contains saturated fatty acids? animal fats tropical oils
structure of saturated fatty acids carbons in a chain bound to 3 H
characteristic of long-chain fatty acids solid at room temperature
characteristics of medium-chain fatty acids -solid when chilled -liquid at room temp
# of C in a medium-chain fatty acid 8-12 C
short-chain fatty acids remain what state at room temp? liquid
carbon chains of fatty acids vary in length from ___ to ___. a few to 20 or more
# of C in short-chain fatty acids 4-7 C
Diglyceride 2 fatty acids attached to the glycerol
monoglyceride one fatty acid attached to the glycerol
structure of triglycerides 3 fatty acids attached to glycerol molecule
typical american diet contains ___% from fat? 34%
calories per gram of fat 9 calories
lipid chemical term for fat
phospholipids and membranes form lipid bilayer in membranes, helping to regulate what can pass into and out of the cell
what are phosphoglycerides used for? emulsifiers
what is the major class of phospholipids? phosphoglycerides (ex. lecithin)
structure of phospholipids lipids attached to a phosphate group
what evidence has been found about trans fats? they raise blood cholesterol levels and increase the risk of heart disease
hydrogenation addition of a hydrogen which causes some double bonds to become saturated -this creates trans fats
essential fatty acids and type of fatty acid omega-3 & 6 -unsaturated
Do sterols dissolve in water? No
Cholesterol is a type of ___ found only where? sterol; animals
Where is 90% of cholesterol found in the body? cell membranes
Plant sterols help reduce what? cholesterol levels
lipoproteins transport particles for water-insoluble lipids
How are lipoproteins created? combination of water-insoluble lipids, phospholipids, and proteins
What do lipoproteins carry? triglycerides, cholesterol, fat-soluble vitamins
Where do lipoproteins travel? from the small intestine and takes stored lipids from the liver
chylomicrons combination of diet-derived triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids, with small amount of protein
What do chylomicrons transport? long chain fatty acids
Where do chylomicrons go? to the lymphatic system and into the blood stream without passing through the liver
What do chylomicrons deliver? triglycerides to the body's cells
What is the importance of the liver to lipids? the liver is the major lipid producing organ
very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs) triglycerides produced in the liver that are incorporated into entities
What is the purpose of VLDLs? transports lipids out of the liver and delivers them to cells in the body
lipoprotein lipase enzyme that removes triglycerides from VLDLs
intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs) created from lipoprotein lipase removing triglycerides from VLDLs
low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) the remainder of IDLs that are not returned to the liver
What do LDLs contain? less triglycerides and more cholesterol than VLDLS
What is the purpose of LDLs? deliver cholesterol to the cells
Blood levels and LDLs if the amount of LDL cholesterol in the blood exceeds the amount that can be used by the cells, it results in a high level of LDLs
What serum levels have been associated with increased risk for heart disease? high levels of serum LDLs
What is really hard for most cells to break down? cholesterol
How is cholesterol eliminated from the body? it is returned back to the liver so it can be eliminated
high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) performs a reverse cholesterol transport
Blood levels and HDLs help to prevent cholesterol from depositing in the artery walls
What serum levels have been associated with decreased risk for heart disease? high serum levels of HDLs
What is the classification of most lipids in the body and where are they stored? triglycerides; adipose tissue
Purpose of adipose tissue body shape provide stored energy insulate body protect internal organs from shock
What is used to lubricate body surfaces, like the mucus membranes? lipids
What is used to make several hormones, like sex hormones and cortisol? cholesterol
What helps to regulate blood pressure and clotting? polyunsaturated fatty acids
What is the significance of essential fatty acids? important for growth, skin integrity, fertility. and the structure/functions of cell membranes
eicosanoids made from omega-3 and 6 fatty acids, they help to regulate blood clotting and pressure plus immune function
omega-3 scientific name alpha-linolenic acid (18 C)
omega-6 scientific name linoleic acid (18 C)
What happens if you have essential fatty acid deficiency? dry, scaly skin, live abnormalities, poor wound healing, growth failure in infants and impaired hearing or vision
Most fatty acids contain how many carbons in a chain? 18
What can be used to form ATP? fatty acids and glycerol
What begins the metabolic pathway to produce ATP? beta oxidation
Fasting stores and lipids breaks down glycogen, then when those stores are gone, breaks down protein (BAD)
Feasting stores and lipids builds glycogen stores
Aterosclerosis disease where lipids and fibrous materials are deposited in artery walls
Body and plaque buildup if there is a plaque buildup, the body has to work harder and this often causes heart disease
How are blood lipid levels assessed? by a blood panel and statistics
Dietary factors to reduce the risk of heart disease polyunsaturated & monounsaturated fats plant foods B vitamins antioxidants moderate alcohol fiber
dietary factors that increase the risk of heart disease cholesterol (connected to saturated fat) saturated fat trans fat sodium excess sugar excess energy
What has evidence to be a tumor promoter and initiator? dietary fat
What is the max percentage that diet can decrease the risk of cancer? 25%
How much of the diet came from fat in the 1970s? 42%
Who has the highest fat diet? infants
What are the nutrition facts labels based on? 1968 RDAs
fat-free contains less than 0.5g of fat per serving
low-fat contains 3g or less of fat per serving
percent fat free may be used to only describe foods that meet the definition of fat-free or low-fat
reduced or less fat contains at least 25% less fat per serving of the original or reference product
saturated fat-free contains less than 0.5g saturated fat and 0.5g trans fat per serving
low saturated fat contains less than 1g of saturated per serving and contributes less than 15% kcals from saturated fat per serving
reduced or less saturated fat contains at least 25% less saturated fat than regular or reference product
cholesterol-free contains less than 2mg of cholesterol and 2g or less saturated fat per serving
low cholesterol contains 20mg or less of cholesterol and 2g or less of saturated fat per serving
reduced or less cholesterol contains at least 25% less cholesterol than the regular or reference product and 2g or less of saturated fat
lean contains less than 10g of fat, 4.5g or less of saturated fat, and less than 95mg or less of cholesterol per serving and per 100g
extra lean contains less than 5g of fat, less than 2g saturated fat, and less than 95mg of cholesterol per serving and per 100g
What comprises reduced-fat food? fat removed, fat replaced or contains fats that cannot be digested or absorbed
What are fat substitutes based on? carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based
What do fat substitutes do? reduce the absorption of fat-sluble vitamins
What is an example of a fat substitute? Olestra (sucrose polyester)
What can cholesterol be used to make? vitamin D, hormones, bile acids
what percentage of what is digested/absorbed? 95% (not dependent on how much you eat)
gastric lipase acts on triglycerides containing short and medium chain fatty acids
where does gastric lipase work best? acidic environments
What type of fatty acid chain is not affected by the stomach? long chain fatty acids
Where does most digestion happen? small intestine
where is the primary site of fat digestion? small intestine
CCK and pancreas stimulates pancreas to release pancreatic lipase
pancreatic colipase released to help facilitate lipase enzyme action
CCK and gallbladder stimulates the release of bile to help emulsify fats
What is fat broken down into? monoglycerides and fatty acids
What is a big requirement for a fat to be absorbed by the body? it must be completely broken down
What are some components used to replace fats? water starch derivatives fiber protein engineered fats
What is the RDA for fat? none
What is the AI for omega-3? 1.6g/ day men 1.1g/ day women
What is the AI for omega-6? 17g/ day men 12g/day women
myristic acid 14:0 (coconut oil/ nuts/ animal plant fats)
Created by: starryeyes213