Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

A&Pch3terms

QuestionAnswer
active transport involves the expenditure of extra energy from cells own energy reserve and can result in net movement of solute uphill against a concentration gradient
adenosine triphosphate in primary active transport, the carrier derives its energy from APT
antiport one solute may be exchanged for another in a process of exchange
ATPase a large family of enzymes
blood plasma the fluid component of blood
carriers proteins that actually bind indicidual solute molecules on one side of the membrane and release the solute on the opposite side of the membrane
channels barrel shaped pores that enclose a small water filled passage through which solutes diffuse as if in free solution
cotransport multiple solutes of different types may need to bind to the carrier before all are transloated
diffusion the movement of a substance due to the random movement of its individual particles
diffusion coefficient a factor that determines the rate of net movement of a substance by diffusion, it is a property that depends on the particle size of the substance and the nature of the medium in which diffusion is occuring
diffusion potential the charge seperation generated by this process can be measured as an electrical coltage between the two chambers
distance a key factor that determine the rate of net movement of a substance by diffusion. greater distances reduce the rate of net movement.
effectors changes that regulate variable in the direction of the setpoint
endocytosis a process of cellular uptake in which a small region of the plasma membrane is first indented for form a pocket and then is pinched off to for a endocytotic vesicle
endocytotic vesicle a packet of plasma membrane containing anything that was within the pocket when it formed
enxymes any of a very large class of comphex proteinaceous substances (as amylases or pepsin) that are produced by living cells, are essential to life by acting like catalysts in promoting at the cell temperature usually reversible reactions
equilibrium potential magnitude of the equilibrium protention (E)is directly related to the magnitude of the concentration gradient, since one must balance the other
exchange a process in which one solute may be exchanged for another (antiport)
exoctytosis a process in which intracellular vesicles fuse with the plasma membrant and release their contents to the exterior
exothermic heat releasing
extracellular compartment all of the solution outside a cell
extracellular fluid all the fluid outside cells, which has two mail components: interstitual fluid and the blood plasma
hypertonic a solution that contains a higher imperment solute concentration and causes cells to shrink
hypertonic challeng homeostatic challenge that add impermeant solute to the ECF without changing the total water content will drive movement of water from intracellular compart. to extracellular compart until the osmotic concetration of both compart. are again = but > normal
hypotonic a solution that contains a lower concetration of impermeant solute than normal cytophasm (and therefore a higher osmotic strength) and causes cells placed in it to swell
hypotonic challenge homeostatic challange that decreases total extracellular solute will result in osmotic concentration of the two compartments becomes equal, but lower then normal.
interstitial fluid fluid that immediately surrounds cells in tissue
intracellular compartment a compartment which is surrounded by a water permeable barrier, that holds all of the cytoplasm of a cell
ions anoms or molecules that have an electrical charge
isotonic solutions throughout most organs and tissues in which the osmotic concentration of the cytoplasm is approximately 300 mOsmeles/liter
law of electroneutrality ions sever stay more than a short distance away from a corresponding counterion
ligand-gated channels many channels are opened or closed (gated) by external influences. ligand gated channels respond to the binding of messenger substances from inside or outside the cell.
muscle tone a constand low level of tension in all muscles
Na+/K+ ATP phase found in virtually all cells, the Na+ K+ pump
Na+/K+ pump in each cycle Na+ K+ pump split 1 ATP & mediate ejection of 3 Na from cell in exchange for 2 K moved from outside in. cytoplasm contains higher concentration K the extracellular fluid is reverse for Na both Na&K move against concentration gradient by pump
Na+ glucose cotransporter uses the downhill gradient of Na+ into the cells, which is generated by the Na+ K+ pump to drive glucose into the cell against its concentration gradient
negative feedback designed to min. deviation from setpoint of some variable feature of environment (temp) by having sensors measure regulated variable, controllers that compare measured value w/ setpoint & by activating effectors that move variable in direction setpoint
nernst equation the mathematical relationship between the two forms of energy--electrical & chemical-- is described by Nernst equation Ek+=RT/zF In ({K+}left/{K+} right)
osmometer device in which 2 rigid compartments are seperated by barrier that is permeable to water but not solute. 1 compartment contains pure water whereas the other containssolution of unknown concentration
osmosis diffusive movement of water down a water concentration gradient
osmotic pressure an equilibrium pressure directly related to the concentration of solute particles
passive transport net movement of substances by diffusion; does not require the imput of extra energy from cellular metabolism
permeant substances very small molecules (water) or substances that can dissolve in lipids
phagocytosis a process in which cells of the immune system can engulf whole bacteria or particles of foreign material
primary active transport the carrier derives its energy from adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
pyrogens fever inducer
receptor mediated endocytosis movement to cellular interior membrane proteins together w/ specific extracellular substances that become bound to receptors. it's important method of regulating number of receptor proteins in plasma membrane
receptors membrane proteins in the cellular interior
resting potential a difference in electrical charge between the cytoplasmic and extracellulare sides of the plasma membrane
secondary active transport processes not driven by ATP but by transmembrane gradient of some other solute
sensors in negative feedback sensors measure the state of the regulated variable and pass this information to a controller that compares it with a predetermined setpoint
setpoint a set value of some variable feature of the environment, such as temperature
osmosis diffusive movement of water down a water concentration gradient
osmotic pressure an equilibrium pressure directly related to the concentration of solute particles
passive transport net movement of substances by diffusion; does not require the imput of extra energy from cellular metabolism
permeant substances very small molecules (water) or substances that can dissolve in lipids
thermogenesis means of increasing heat production within the body
phagocytosis a process in which cells of the immune system can engulf whole bacteria or particles of foreign material
transport APTase carrier proteins, of which the most common form is the Na+ K+ pump found in virtually all cells
primary active transport the carrier derives its energy from adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
pyrogens fever inducer
the uptake of extracellular fluid with water and solutes
receptor mediated endocytosis movement to cellular interior membrane proteins together w/ specific extracellular substances that become bound to receptors. it's important method of regulating number of receptor proteins in plasma membrane
receptors membrane proteins in the cellular interior
resting potential a difference in electrical charge between the cytoplasmic and extracellulare sides of the plasma membrane
secondary active transport processes not driven by ATP but by transmembrane gradient of some other solute
sensors in negative feedback sensors measure the state of the regulated variable and pass this information to a controller that compares it with a predetermined setpoint
setpoint a set value of some variable feature of the environment, such as temperature
symport multiple solutes of different types may need to bind to the carriers before all are translocated
synaptic transmission chemical signals between neurons and neurons or between neurons and muscle cells
thermogenesis means of increasing heat production within the body
transport APTase carrier proteins, of which the most common form is the Na+ K+ pump found in virtually all cells
transport proteins proteins that span the cell membrane, providing alternative routes through the membrane. there are 2 types of transport proteins" channel and carrier
voltage-gated channels many channels are opened or closed (gated) by external influences. voltage gated channels respond to changes in membrane potential
the uptake of extracellular fluid with water and solutes
Created by: brookealison2001