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ADN 2 CH 13


addiction: a behavioral pattern of substance use characterized by a compulsion to take the substance (drug or alcohol) primarily to experience its psychic effects
agonist: a substance that when combined with the receptor produces the drug effect or desired effect. Endorphins and morphine are agonists on the opioid receptors
algogenic: causing pain
antagonist: a substance that blocks or reverses the effects of the agonist by occupying the receptor site without producing the drug effect
balanced analgesia: using more than one form of analgesia concurrently to obtain more pain relief with fewer side effects
breakthrough pain: a sudden and temporary increase in pain occurring in a patient being managed with opioid analgesia
dependence: occurs when a patient who has been taking opioids experiences a withdrawal syndrome when the opioids are discontinued; often occurs with opioid tolerance and does not indicate an addiction
endorphins and enkephalins: morphinelike substances produced by the body. Primarily found in the central nervous system, they have the potential to reduce pain
nociception: activation of sensory transduction in nerves by thermal, mechanical, or chemical energy impinging on specialized nerve endings; the nerves involved convey information about tissue damage to the central nervous system
nociceptor: a receptor preferentially sensitive to a noxious stimulus
non-nociceptor: nerve fiber that usually does not transmit pain
opioid: a morphinelike compound that produces bodily effects including pain relief, sedation, constipation, and respiratory depression
pain: an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience resulting from actual or potential tissue damage
pain threshold: the point at which a stimulus is perceived as painful
pain tolerance: the maximum intensity or duration of pain that a person is able to endure
patient-controlled analgesia (PCA): self-administration of analgesic agents by a patient instructed about the procedure
placebo effect: analgesia that results from the expectation that a substance will work, not from the actual substance itself
prostaglandins: chemical substances that increase the sensitivity of pain receptors by enhancing the painprovoking effect of bradykinin
referred pain: pain perceived as coming from an area different from that in which the pathology is occurring
sensitization: a heightened response seen after exposure to a noxious stimulus. Response to the same stimulus is to feel more pain
tolerance: occurs when a person who has been taking opioids becomes less sensitive to their analgesic properties (and usually side effects); characterized by the need for increasing doses to maintain the same level of pain relief
Created by: xsavier1