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Section 2

Exam 2 Material

Natural Increase the difference between the number of births and the number of deaths
Crude Birth Rate (CBR) the number of live births per year per thousand people in the population
Crude Death Rate (CDR) the number of deaths per year per thousand people
Demographic Transition shift in population growth
Stationary Population Level (SPL) world's population will stabilize
Population Composition structure of population in terms of age, sex, and other properties such as martial status and education
Population Pyramids displays the percentages of each age group in the total population
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) a baby's death during the first year following its birth. Often given in a number of cases per thousand
Child Mortality Rate deaths of children between the ages 1 and 5
Life expectancy the number of years, on average, someone may expect to remain alive.
Infectious Diseases resulting from an invasion of parasites and their multiplication in the body
Chronic/Degenerative Diseases the maladies of longevity and old age such as heart disease
Genetic/Inherited Diseases diseases we can trace to our ancestry, the chromosomes and genes that define our makeup
Endemic disease that prevails over a small area
Vectored Infectious Disease disease transmitted by an intermediary vector. ex. Mosquito
Nonvectored Infectious Disease disease transmitted by direct contact between a host and a victim. ex. kiss, handshake
Leading Cause of Death in US heart disease, cancer, stroke, chronic lower respiratory disease, accidents, diabetes, alzheimer's disease
Expansive Population Policies encourage large families and raise the rate of natural increase
Eugenic Population Policies designed to favor one racial or culture sector of the population over others. ex. Nazi Germany
Restrictive Population Policies range from toleration or officially unapproved means of birth control to outright prohibition of larger families
One-Child Policy families that had more than one child were penalized financially, and educational opportunities and housing privileges were kept from them
Cyclic Movement involves shorter periods away from home
Periodic Movement involves longer periods away from home
Migration change in residence intended to be permanent
Activity Spaces daily routine of regular sequence of short moves within a local area
Nomadism a matter of survival, culture, and tradition
Migrant Labor involves millions of workers in the US and tens of millions worldwide. (Type of Periodic Movement)
Transhumance system of pastoral farming where ranchers move livestock according to the seasonal availability of pastures
Military Service US citizens are moved to new locations to spend tours of duty that can last for years
International Migration movement across country boarders (Transnational Migration)
Immigration adds to the total population by people entering a country
Emigration subtracts from the total population by people leaving the country
Internal Migration migration that occurs within a single country's boarders
Forced Migration involves the imposition of authority or power, producing involuntary migration movements that cannot be understood based on theories of choice
Voluntary Migration series of options or choices that result in movement even if desperately or not so rationally
Laws of Migration Every migration flow generates a return or countermigration. The majority of migrants move a short distance. Migrants who move longer distances tens to choose big-city destinations. Urban residents are less migrtory than inhabitants of rural areas.
Gravity Model predicts interaction between places on the basis of their population size and distance between them
Push Factors conditions and perceptions that help the migrant decide to leave a place
Pull Factors circumstances that effectively attract the migrant to certain locales from other places
Distance Decay migrants having more complete perceptions of nearer places than of farther ones
Step Migration migration streams that appear on maps as long, unbroken routes but consist of a series of stages
Intervening Opportunity presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away
Deportation being sent back home
Kinship Links types of push or pull factors that influence a migrant's decision to go where friends or family have already found success
Chain Migration flows along and through kinship links
Immigration Waves chains of migration that build upon each other or swells in migration from one origin to the same destination
Global-Scale Migration migration that takes place across international boundaries and between world regions
Explorers surveyors and cartographers
Colonization physical process where the colonizer takes over another place
Regional Scale migration between neighboring countries to take advantage of short-term economic opportunities etc.
Islands of Development cities in the developing world where most foreign investment takes place, vast majority of jobs are, and where infrastructure is concentrated. Port cities that became islands of economic development
Russification sought to assimilate all the people in the soviet territory into the Russian culture
Guest Workers labor migrants
Refugee a person who has a wellfounded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationally, membership of particular social group, or political opinion
Internally Displaced Persons people who have been displaced within their own countries
Asylum right to protection in the first country in which the refugee arrives
Repatriation process where the UNHCR helps return refugees to their homelands
Genocide acts committed with intent to destroy , in whole or part, a national, ethnical, racial, or religious group
Immigration Laws prevent the immigration of Chinese people to California
Quotas each year European countries could permit the emigration to the US of 3% of the number of its nationals living in the US in 1910
Selective Immigration individuals with certain backgrounds are barred from entering
Gender difference between men and women, their characteristics
Identity how we make sense of ourselves, how do each of us define ourselves, we construct our own identity
Race product of ways of viewing minor genetic differences
Racism attitude toward visible differences in individuals (predominately negative)
Residential Segregation degree to which two or more groups live separately from one another in different parts of the urban environment
Succession when new immigrants to a city often move to low-income areas that are being gradually abandoned by older immigrant groups
Sense of Place infusing a place "with meaning and feeling" and is always changing as we change
Ethnicity people are closely bounded, even related, in a certain place over time
Space "social relations stretched out"
Place "particular articulations of those social relations as they have come together over time in that particular location"
Gendered places seen as being appropriate for women or for men
Queer Theory theory that highlights the contextual nature of opposition to the hetero normative
Barrioization dramatic increase in Hispanic population in a given neighborhood
Created by: 100000273880320



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