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Step1 10.11.12

Microbiology VIII

QuestionAnswer
What is the envelope, genome, and capsid symmetry of reoviruses? no envelope, dsRNA linear (10-12 segments), icosahedral
What are the 2 medically important reoviruses and what do they cause? 1. Coltivirus- colorado tick fever 2. Rotavirus- #1 cause of fatal diarrhea in kids
What is the envelope, genome and capsid structure of picronaviruses? no envelope, ss+RNA, icosahedral
What are the 5 medically important members of the picornavirus family? Poliovirus, Echovirus, Rhinovirus, Coxsackievirus, HAV
Which is the Salk vs Sabin polio vaccines? IPV=Salk OPV=Sabin
What does echovirus cause? aseptic meningitis
What does rhinovirus cause? common cold
What does coxsackievirus cause? aspetic meningitis, herpangina-febrile pharyngitis hand, foot, and mouth disease myocarditis
What does HAV cause? acute viral hepatitis
What is the envelope, genome and capsid symmetry of hepevirus? no envelope, ss+RNA linear , icosahedral
What is the enveope, genome, and capsid symmetry of Calciviruses? no envelope, ss+RNA linear, icosahedral
What is the only medically important calcivirus and what does it cause? Norwalk virus- causes viral gastroenteritis
What is the envelope, genome and capsid symmetry of Falviviruses? enveloped, ss+RNA linear, icosahedral
What are the 2 important falviviruses? HepE virus, arbovirus
What 4 disease does arbovirus cause among the flaviviruses? Yellow fever, dengue, St. louis encephalitis, West nile virus
What is the genome, envelope, and capsid symmetry of togaviruses? enveloped, ss+RNA linear, icosahedral
What diseases are caused by togaviruses? Rubella, eastern equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis
What is the genome, envelope and capsid strecture of retroviruses? enveloped, ss+ RNA linear, icosahedral (HTLV), complex and conical (HIV)
What does HTLV cause? T cell leukemia
what is the envelope, genome and capsid structure of coronaviruses? enveloped, ss+RNA linear, helical
What 2 diseases can be caused by coronaviruses? common cold, SARS
What is the envelope, genome and capside structure of the orthomyxoviruses? enveloped, SS - linear RNA in 8 segments, helical
What is the only medically important orthomyxovirus? influenza
what is the enveloped, genome, and capsid structure of paramyxoviruses? enveloped, SS - linear nonsegmented, helical
What are the 5 major paramyxoviruses? parainfluenza, RSV, Rubeola(Measels)Mumps
What does parainfluenza cause? croup
What does RSV cause? How is it treated? bronchilitis in babies tx: ribavirin
What is the envelope, genome and capsid of the Rhabdoviruses? enveloped, ss- RNA, helical
What is the only important rhabdovirus? Rabies
What is the envelope, genome, and capsid structure of arenaviruses? enveloped, ss-circular in 2 segments, helical
What are the 2 important arenavirus and what does it cause? LCMV (lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus) Lassa fever encephalitis- spread by mice
What is the envelope, genome, and capsid of bunyaviruses? enveloped, SS -RNa circular in 3 segments, helical
What are 3 diseases spread by arboviruses of the bunyavirus family? california encephalitis, sandfly/rift valley fevers, crimean congo hemorragic fever
What is the family of hantavirus and what does it cause? bunyavirus which causes hemmoragic fever and neumonia
What is the envelope, genome, and capsid of the deltavirus family? enveloped, ss- RNA circular, helical
What is the only important deltavirus? hepatitis D virus
What type of RNA virus must bring its own RNA dependent polymerase into the cell? - strand RNA viruses becuase it has to be made into + strand
What is a mnemonic for the 6 families of - RNS viruses? Always (arenavirus)Bring (bunyavirus) Polymerase(paramyxovirus) Or(orthomyxovirus) Fail (Filovirus) Repilcation( Rhabdovirus)
What is a menonic for the 4 segmented viruses? BOAR. Bunyavirus, orthomyxovirus, arenavirus, reovirus
What is a mnomic for the picronaviruses? PERCH: polio, echo, rhino, coxsackie, HepA
How do the picronaviruses become function and how do they spread? what is the exception? beocome functional by cleavage of long polypeptide cleaved into viral proteins. spread fecal oral except rhinovirus
Why can't rhinovirus infect the GI tract like other picronaviruses? it is acid labile and is destryed by stomach acid
What is the species of yellow fever virus and how does it spread? falvivirus transmitted by aedes mosquito. virus has monkey or human reservoir
What are the sx of yellow fever? high fever, black vomitus, jaundice
What type of virus might be expected in day care centers and kindergartens with an outbreak of acute diarrhea? rotavirus
How does rotavirus cause diarrhea? villous destruction leads to decr absorbtion of Na+ and H20
What is the role of hemagglutin and neuramidase in influenza? hemeagglutin promotes viral entry, neuramidase promotes the relase of progeny. people die for bactrial superinfection
What is genetic shift/antigenic shift in influenza and what does it cause? pandemics. segments of genome undergo high frequency recombination such as when human influenza A recombines with swine A
What is genetic drift in influenza and what does it cause? epidemics. changes in genome based on random mutation
A congeital disease presenting with postauricular lymphadenopathy, arthralgia, fine truncal rash starts at head and moves down. likely antigen? Rubella, a togavirus. mild disease in kids but SEVERE in babies (TORCH) infection
Child, seal bark cough. likely pathogen? parainfluenza
Bronchiolitis in children, likely pathogen? RSV (paramyxovirus)
What surface protein do all paramyxoviruses have in common, and what does it doe (RSV, parainfluenza, mumps)? all containd protein F which causes fusion of respiratory epithelia
What is used to prevent pneumonia caused by paramyxoviruses in premature infants and what does it target? pavilizumab, mAB against protein F
What are the 3 C's of measels? cough, coryza, conjunctivitis
What family does measels (rubeola) belong to and what are its characteristic markings? paramyxovirus. Koplic spots. red spots with blue-white center on buccal mucosa and descedning maculopapular rash
What are 3 possible later sequelae of measels? SSPE, encephalitis, giant cell pneumonia
What does a mesels rash look like? presents last, spreads from head to toe, inclues hands and feet (vs rash of rubella). becomes confluent as it moves downward
What family does mumps virus belong to and what are the major sx? paramyxovirus. parotitis, orchitis(testis), aseptic meningitis. danger of sterility
What pathogen has bullet shaped capsids and has Negri bodies especially found in purkinje cells of cerebellum? rabies
What is the incubation and mech of disease of rabies? long incubation, travels to CNS via retrograde up nerve axons. vaccine must be given upon exposure
What is the natural histroy of an untreated rabies infection? fever malaise-->agitation, photophobia, hydrophobia-->paralysis, coma, death
What animals commonly pass rabies in the US? bat, raccoon, skunt more than dog bites
What is the virus type and transmission , cancer risk,and incubation of hepatitis A? RNA picornavirus, fecal oral transmission, short incubationm, no HCC risk
What are the 3 A's of hepatitis A? Asx, acute, Alone (no carriers)
What is the process of HepB copying its genome? cellular RNA pol transcribes RNA from DNA template, rt then transcribes RNA into DNA genome. virion enzyme: DNA dependent DNApol
What is the type, transmission, carrier status, incubation and cancer risk of HepB? hepadnevirus, paraenteral, sexual, maternal fetal spread, long incubation, can act as an oncogene
What is the class, transmission, incubation and HCC risk of HepC? RNA flavivirus, IVDA, post transfusion. long incubation, can cause cancer from chronic inflammation
What are the 4 C's of hepatitis C? chronic, cirrhosis, carcinoma, carrier
What is the type, transmission, and what does its infection depend upon? RNA delta virus, parenteral, sexual or maternal fetal transmission. infection depends on HbsAg as envelope; coinfects or superinfects
What is the type spread and incubation of HepE virus? RNAhepevirus, fecal oral especailly waterborne epidemics, short incubation
Who has the biggest mortality risk from hepatitis E? pregnant women
What are the 3 E's of HepE? Enteric, expectant mothers, epidemic
What are the Sx of all hepatitis? fever, jaundice, elevated ALT, AST
Which 2 Hepatitis are fecal oral? A,E (vowels hit your bowels)
What is Anti-HAVAb (IgM), what does it help detect? IgM ab to HAV; best to detect active HepA
What is Anti-HAVAb(IgG)? What does it help prevent? IgG ab indicates prior HAV infection, protects against reinfection
What is HBsAg? What does it indicate? antigen on HepB surface, indicates a hepB infection
What Anti-HbsAg? What does it indicate? ab to HBSAg, indicates immunity to HepB
What is HBcAg? Ag associated wiht core of HBV
What is Anti-HBcAg? What does IgM vs IgG mean in this case? When is it positive? ab to HBcAg. IgM=acute infection IgG=chronic disease. postive during the windo period
What is HBeAg? What does it indicate? second ag determinant of the HepB core. indicates active viral replication and HIGH transmissibility
What is Anti-HBeAg and what does it indicate? anti to e Ag, indicates low transmissibility of HepB
what is the different in liver enzyme labs in viral hepatitis vs alcoholic hepatitis? Viral: ALT>AST. EtOh AST>ALT
What is highest during the incubation period of HepB? HBsAg> HBeAg (both peaked)
What is highest in the prodrome of acute disease in HepB? HBsAg ( some anti-HBc)
What Ab is highest during the early convalescent stage of HepB (window period)? Anti-HBc,
What ab's are found and peaking during the Late convalescent stage of HepB? Anti0HBc still present, but anti-HBs is peaking
When is HBsAb positive, HBeAg positive, and IgM Anti-HBcAb present? acute HBV infection
When is Anti- HBcAb alon positive? window period
When is HbsAb, Anti-HBe Ab and IgG Anti-HBcAB present? chronic HBV with high infectivity
When is positive HBsAb, anti-HBeAb, IgG Anti-HBcAb present? chronic HBV with low infectivity
When is Anti-HBsAB, anti-HBeAb, and IgG AntiHBcAb present? recovery phase of HBV
When is AntiHBsAb alone present? immunized from HBV
What are the 3 structural genes of HIV and what do they do? 1env: gp120(attatchent to T cell) gp41(fusion and entry) 2.gag- capsid protein 3.pol: reverse transcriptase
What is the infection pattern of HIV? Rt transcribes dsDNA from RNA; dsDNA integrates into host genome
What does HIV bind to on T cells vs macrophages? binds CXCR4 or CCR5 and CD4 on T cells, CCR5 CD4 on macrophages
What mutation would give immunity to HIV? homozygous CCR5 mutation, heterozygous will give a slower course
What does ELISA look for in HIV and when can these tests be falsely positive or negative? looks for Ab to viral proteins. False -: first 1-2 months of HIV infection False+:babies born to infected mothers due to gp120 crossing the placenta
How is a presumtive Dx of HIV made? ELISA(rule out test many false+) then confirmed with westernblot (high flase nagtive RULE IN)
What is the use of a HIV PCR viral load test? allow physician to monitor effect of drug therapy on viral load
When is a Dx of AIDS made? <200 CD4+ or HIV postive with AIDS defining condition (pneumocytisis etc). or CD4/CD8<1.5
What are the 4 F's of HIV infection stagings? 1. flulike(acutue) 2. feeling fine (latent) 3. falling count 4 Final crisis
During which stage does the HIV virus replicate in LN? latent phase
Created by: tjs2123