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Elementary Surveying

Elementary Surveying: Ch. 1 Introduction

As-Built Surveys document the precise final locations and layouts of engineering works and record any design changes that may have been incorporated into the construction
Mine Surveys performed above and below ground to guide tunneling and other operations associated with mining
Solar Surveys map property boundaries, solar access easements, position obstructions and collectors to sun angles
Satellite Surveys using GPS to determine ground locations
Optical Tooling (industrial surveying) method of making extremely accurate measurements for manufacturing processes where small tolerances are required
Ground Surveys uses measurements made with ground based equiptment
Alignment Surveys made to plan, design and construct highways, railroads, pipelines and other linear projects
Ellipsoid curved surface approximating the size and shape of the earth
Plane Surveying reference based on flat, horizontal surface
Retracement Surveys recover previously established boundary lines
Geodetic Surveying computations based on ellipsoid
Plane Surveying not appropriate for surveys covering extensive areas
Geodetic Surveying earth centered, 3 dimensional earth fixed Cartesian coordinate system
Geodetic Surveying determine relative position of widely spaced monuments
Control Surveys establish a network of horizontal and vertical monuments that serve as a reference framework for initiating other surveys
BLM Bureau of Land Management
Bureau of Land Management general land office responsible for managing the public lands; mostly western states and alaska
Land, Boundary, Cadastral Surveys establish property lines and property corners markers; cadastral is generally applies to public land surveys
CORS Continuously Operating Reference Station
Continuously Operating Reference Station can be downloaded from NGS website for use in GPS survey
NGS National Geodetic Survey
National Geodetic Survey control surveys to establish a network of reference monuments throughout the US
ACSM American Congress on Surveying and Mapping
American Congress on Surveying and Mapping foremost professional surveying organization in US
Topographic Surveys determine locations of natural and artificial features and elevations used in map making
Original Surveys establish new section corners
Aerial accomplished by using photogrammetry or remote sensing
GIS Geographic Information Systems
LIS Land Information Systems
GIS/LIS computer based systems enable storing, integrating, manipulating, analyzing and displaying virtually any type of spatially related information about our environments
Subdivision Surveys establish monuments and delineate new parcels of ownerships
Condominium Surveys provide a legal record of ownership
Construction Surveys provide line, grade, control elevations, horizontal positions, dimensions and configurations for construction operations
Hydrographic Surveys define shorelines and depths of lakes, streams, oceans, reservoirs and other bodies of water
USGS US Geological Survey
US Geological Survey mapping our nations and surveying its resources; nations mapping division produces topographic maps
Surveying also known as Geomatics; the science, art, and technology of determining the relative positions of points above, on, or beneath the Earths surface, or of establishing such points
Created by: kristinestrong