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Pharm test 3

chap 26

Difference between 1st and 2nd generation H1 blockers The first-generation antihistamines have sedative and antiemetic effects, so they are occasionally used to produce sedation and treat nausea and vomitting. The second generation drugs lack antiemetic activity and none of them causes substantial sedation.
Which ones can be used as an antiemetic (for nausea/vomiting) the first-generation antihistamines: promethanzine
Which drugs can cause drowsiness? Which ones normally don’t diphehydramine, hydroxyzine, promethazine, meclizine
Prostaglandin drugs for the eyes: treat open-angle glaucoma latanoprost
First prostaglandin drug indicated for the treatment of glaucoma latanoprost: topically as eyedrops
Lataloprost adverse effects alter the color of the iris can cause a permanent eye color change by increasing the amount of melanin in melanocytes
Intranasal antihistamines azelastine
azelastine - indication Treatment of symptoms of allergic rhinitis: sneezing, nasal
azelastine - Adverse effects: nasal irritation, dizziness, fatigue, headache, , dry mouth, and weight gain
ophthalmic antihistamines Olopatadine (Patanol), Ketotifen (Zaditor)
Olopatadine (Patanol)indications: eyedrop formulation: temporary relief of the signs and symptoms of seasonal allergic conjunctivis
Olopatadine (Patanol)adverse effects: transient stinging and burning
Ketotifen classification mast cell stabilizer, noncompetitive H1 antagonist
ketotifen indications temporary prevention of itching of the eye caused by allergic conjunctivitis
First generation drugs • diphenhydramine (Benadryl) • promethazine (Phenergan) • meclizine (Antivert) • dimenhydrinate (Dramamine) • hydroxyzine HCl (Atarax) pamoate • chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton)
Second Generation • loratadine (Claritin) • cetirizine (Zyrtec) • fexofenadine (Allegra) • desloratadine (Clarinex) • levocetirizine (Xyzal)
Intranasal Antihistamine azelastine (Astelin, Astepro)
Ophthalmic Antihistamines • Olopatadine (Patanol) • Ketotifen (Zaditor)
Histamine H1 receptor Antagonists First generation ;Second Generation ;Ophthalmic Antihistamines ;Intranasal Antihistamine
Serotonergic Drugs (5-HT) Serotonin Antagonists ;Serotonin Agonists
Serotonin Agonists buspirone (Buspar) sumatriptan (Imitrex)
Serotonin Antagonists • clozapine (Clozaril) • cyproheptadine (Periactin) • ondansetron (Zofran)
Prostaglandin Drugs • alprostodil (Caverject, Muse) • misoprostol (Cytotec) • latanoprost (Xalatan) • bimatoprost (Lumigan, Latisse) • travoprost (Travatan)
Endothelin-1 antagonists • bosenten (Tracleer) • ambrisentan (Letairis)
First generation antihistamines indications treat nausea and vomiting, prevent motion sickness (travel by plane, boat), treat vertigo
meclizine, dimenhydrinate treat motion sickness or vertigo
promethazine relieve nausea and vomiting
second gen drugs treatment of allergies
cetirizine more likely to cause some sedation than fexofenadine or loratadine
first-gen adverse effects sedation, produce excitement in children and infants
diphenhydramine, promethazine highest anticholinergic activity => adverse eff: dry mouth, blurred vision, tachycardia, urinary retention, and other atropine-like side effects
buspirone (BuSpar) Indications: anxiety & depression
sumatriptan (Imitrex) Indications: Migraine
cyproheptadine (Periactin) Indications: urticaria, pruritis, carcinoid syndrome
ondansetron (Zofran) Indications: Chemo/postop related N & V
ondansetron (Zofran) Adverse effects: HA, constipation, fatigue
alprostadil Indications: maintain patency of patent ductus arteriosus, ED
misoprostol (Cytotec) Indication: prevent NSAID-induced ulcers
misoprostol (Cytotec) Adverse effects: Category X, stimulate uterine contractions
bosentan (Tracleer) ambrisentan (Letairis) Indications: pulmonary arterial hypertension
bosentan (Tracleer) ambrisentan (Letairis) Adverse effects: Category X, liver enzymes
Created by: prinluu