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Step 1 10.10.12

Microbiology VII

QuestionAnswer
What causes typhoid fever vs typhus? Typhoid fever: bacteria= Salmonella typhi typhus: bacteria=Rockettsia prowaseklii (epidemic), tphi (endemic), tsutsugamushi (scrub typhus)
What is a naked icosahedral viral structure? just nucelocapsid and genome
What is an enveloped icosahedral viral structure? surface protein with lipid bilayer, capdis, and genome
What is an enveloped helical viral structure? surface protein, matrix or core protein, lipid bilayer, and nucleocapsid and genome
What is viral recombination? exchange of genes b/w 2 chr by crossing over in regions with base pair homology
What is viral reassortment? viruses with segmented genomes (like influenza) exhange segments, causes pandemics
What is viral complementation? 1 of 2 viruses invade cell with nonfunctional mutation, non mutated will complement mutated and make normal protein for both
What is viral phenotypic mixing? infection of cell with 2 viruses, virus A can be coated by surface protein of virus B. So B will determine infectivity, but genome is still A
What is a live attenuated viral vaccine, do they need a booster? Who should not get them induce both humoral and cell mediated immunity. can revert on occassion. no booster. dangerous to give to ICPt and their close contacts
What type of immunity can a killed virus ellicit? only humoral, so might need booster
What viruses have live attenuated vaccines? small pox, yellow fever, chicken pox, Sabin's polio virus, MMR
What is a mnomonic for the live attenuated vaccines? LIVE! See SMALL YELLOW CHICKENS get vaccinated with SABIN's and MMR!
Which viruses have a killed virus vaccine? Rabies, Influenza, Salk Polio, HAV vaccine
What is a mnonic for the killed virus vaccines? salK=killed. RIP Always. Rabies, Influenza, Salk Polio, HAV
What are 2 viral recombinant vaccines? HBV (HBsAg, HPV (6,11,16,18)
What is the only DNA virus with ssDNA? parvovirus
Wich 3 DNA viral genomes are non linear? pailloma, polyoma, hepadnavirus (circular)
What is the only dsRNA virus? reoviridae
What are 7 positive ssRNA viruses? Retrovirus, Togavirus, flavivirus, Coronavirus, Hepevirus,calicivirus, picronavirus
What is the mnemonic for the +ssRNA viruses? I went to a RETRO TOGA party where I drank FLAVored CORONA and ate HIPPY CALifornia PICKLES
Which types of viruses have genomes which are infectious on their own? dsDNA viruses (except poxvirus, HBV) and +ssRNA are infectious. -ssRNA and dsRNA arent
What is the only diploid virus family? retroviruses, 2 identical ssRNA molecules
Where do DNA viruses replicate? What is the exception? nucleus, except poxvirus
Where do RNA viruses duplicate? What is the exception? cytoplasm, except influenza and retroviruses
what are 7 naked viruses? Calcivirus, Picronavirus, Reovirus, Parvovirus, adenovirus, Papilloma, Polyoma virus
What is a mnemonic for the naked viruses? Naked CPR and PAPP smear (DNA=PAPP RNA=CPR)
Where do enveloped viruses get their envelope? What is the exception? usually plasma membrane when they leave. Except herpesvirus which gets it from the nuclear membrane
What are 7 DNA viruses? Hepadna, Herpes, Adeno, Pox, Parvo, Papilloma, Polyoma
What is a mnemonic for the DNA viruses? HHAPPPPy
What are the general charactersitics of DNA viruses? 1.ds 2. linear 3. icosahedral 4. replicate in nuclease
Which virus is the exception to the rule that DNA viruses are ds and linear? Parvovirus is single stranded. papilloma and polyoma( supercoiled) and hepadna (circular and incomplete) do not have linear genomes
What is the exception to the rule that all DNA viruses are icosahedral and replicate in the nucleus? Pox virus has a complex shape and carries its own DNA dependent RNA pol
What is the envelope and DNA structure of the Herpesvirus family? has an envelope, dsDNA
What does HSV-1 cause? (3) oral (and some genital) lesions, spontaneous temporal lobe encephalitis, keratoconjunctivitis
What does HSV-2 cause? genital (some oral) lesions
What does VZV (HHV-3) cause? chickenpox, zoster(shingles)
What diesease does EBV(HHV-4) cause? (3) mononuceloisis, Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma
What disease does CMV (HHV-5) cause? infects IcPT(espAIDS retinitis), transplant recipient, congenital defectos (SIGHT-omegalovirus)
What does HHV-6 cause? roseola (exathem subitum)
What does HHV-8 (KSHV) cause? Kaposi's sarcoma
What is the enveolpe and DNA structure of Hepadnavirus? has an envelope, DS but partial circular
What disease does HBV cause? Is there a vaccine? What is interesting about it's enzymes? acute or chronic hepatitis, vaccine containes HBV surface Ag. has reverse trancriptase
What is the enveope and genome of adenovirus? Non enveloped linear dsDNA
What 3 diseases does adenovirus cause? febrile pharyngitis (ST, acutue hemorragic cystitis), pneumonia, conjunctivitis- pink eye(watery)
What is the envelope and genome structure of parvovirus? no envelope. ss linear (-) DNA. smallest DNA virus
What diesease does parvovirus like B19 virus cause? aplastic crises in SCA, slapped cheek rash in children-5th disese, RBC destructuion in fetus causing hydrops fetalis, pure RBC aplasia and RA in adults
What are the enveope and genome characterisitcs of papillomavirus? no envelope, dsDNA circular
What does HPV 1,2,6,11 cause? warts
What does HPV 16, 18 cause? CIN, cervical cancer
What HPV strains is there a vaccine for? 16, 18
What are the envelope and genome characterisitics of polyomavirus? no envelope. dsDNA circular
What does JC polyomavirus cause? Who gets it? progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in HIV
What does BK polyomavirus cause? who gets it? targets kidney in transplant pt
What is the envelope and genome of Pox virus? enveloped dsDNA linear virus. largest
What does vaccina poxvirus cause? cow pox, milkmaids blisters
What is molluscum contagiosum and what virus family causes it? fleshcolored dome lesions with central dimple. caused by pox family of viruses
Where is HSV-1 found latent? what disease does it cause? trigeminal ganglia. causes gingivostomatitis, keratoconjunctivits, temporal lobe encephalitis. herpes labialis
How is HSV-1 transmitted? secretions or saliva
What does HSV-2 cause and where is it latent? causes genital herpes, neonatal herpes. latent in sacral ganglia
How is HSV-2 spread? sexual contact, perinatal
What disease does VZV cause? where does it go latent? varicella zoster ( chicken pox/shingles). latent in dorsal root or trigeminal ganglia)
What does EBV cause? Where does it go latent? cuases infectious mononucleosis, Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Latent in B cells
How is VZV spread? respiratory secretions
How is EBV spead? saliva, respiratory secretions
What does CMV cause, where does it go latent? congetina linfection (negative monospot), pneumonia, retinitis. latent in mononiuclear cells
What is characteristic of a cell infected with CMV? owl's eye inclusions
How is CMV spread? congential, transfusion, sexual contact, saliva, urine, transplant
high fevers for several days that can cause seizures. followed by diffues macular rash. esp in kids. Pathogen? Roseola. likely HHV-6
How is HHV-8 spread, what does it cause? spread by sexual contact. causes Kaposi's sarcoma
What is a Tzanck test and what pathogens does it assay for? What else might be seen? smear of opened skin vesicle to lok for multinucleated giant cells. Assay for HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV. Cells will also have intra nuclear Cowdry A inclusions
What is a mnomonic for the things detected by a Tzanck test? Tzanck heavens I dont have herpes
15-20 yr old, characterized by fever, hepatosplenomegaly, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy. Pathogen? what might be seen on a peripheral blood smear? EBV. atypical lymphocytes are not infected B cells but rather reactive cytotoxic T cells
What is a monospot test? what does it mean if positive? detects EBV via agglutination of sheep or horse RBCs. so can be positive with Burkitt's and Hodgkins lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Created by: tjs2123