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step1 10.9.12

Microbiology VI

What are 4 major populations who might get candida albicans? neonates, steroid use, DM, AIDS
What diseases does Candida albicans cause? vulvovagintis (DM, use of abtx), diaper rash, endocarditis in IVDA, chronic mucocutaneous candidisis
What does candida look like at 20 vs 37 degrees? pseudohyphae and budding yeasts at 20 degrees, germ tubes at 37 degrees
What is the Tx for candida albicans? azole for vaginal. fluconazole or caspofungin for oral. amphotericin B, fluconazole, caspofungin for systemic
What does aspergillus look like on microscoe? septae hyphae with acute angle branching. not dipmorhpic
Who gets infected wiht aspergillus funigatus? IcPt especially those with chronic granulomatous disease
What 4 major diseases does aspergillus fumigatus cause? 1. allergic bronchopulmonary aspergilossis 2. aspergilomas in cavities esp after TB 3. heptaocellulat carcinoma due to aflatoxins 4. invasive disease in lungs
What is seen in the microscope for cryptococcus neoformans? yeasts with wide capsular halos and unequal budding in india ink stain
What disease does cryptococcus neoformans cause? cryptococcal meningitis, cryptococcosis. soap bubbles lesions in brain
What are the structural characterisitcs of cryptococcus neoformans and how is it acquired? heavily encapsulated yeast. no dimorphic. soil and pidgeon droppings and acquired via inhalations or hematogenous spread
How do you culture cryptococcus neoformans and what lab test can be used to detect it? culture on Sabouraud's agar. Latex agglutination test detects polysaccaride capsular Ag and is more specific.
What disease does mucor and rhizopus cause and who gets it? mucormycosis especially in ketoacidotic DM and lukemic Pt
What does mucor spp look like under the microscope? broad, non septaer hyphae branching at wide angles
What is the mechanism of mucormycoses? fungi proliferate in blood vessel wall, pnetrate cribriform plate and enter brain. get rhinocerebral and frontal lobe absesses. black necrotic eschar on face
What disease does pneumocystis jirovecii cause? how do you Dx it? diffuse interstitial pneumonia, diffuse bilateral on CXR, dx by lung biopsy or lavage
What can you grow pneumocystis jirovecii on? disc shaped yeast on methenamine silver stain of lung tissue
Who is especially at risk for pneumocystis jirovecii infection? IcPt, especially AIDS
What is the Tx for pneumocystis jirovecii? When should prophylaxis for it begin TMP-SMX, pentamidine, dapsone. Start prophylax when CD<200 in HIV
Dimorhpic, cigarshaped budding yeast living on vegetation. pathogen? Sporothrix schenkii
What is the mech of sporothrix schenikii infection? usually introduced via trauma like rose thorn (rose gardeners diseseas). local pustule or ulcer with nudules along draining lymphatics
What is the Tx for sporothrix schenkii? itraconazole or potassium iodide
What disease does Girdia lamblia cause? How is it transmitted? bloating, flatulence, fatty diarrhea(esp campers). found in cysts in water
How is giardia lamblia Dx? tx? trophozoites or cysts in stoll. tx: metronidazole
What disease is caused by Entamoeba histolytica and how is it transmitted? bloody diarrhea, liver absess (reddish brown), RUQ pain(flask shaped ulcer in submucosal absess of colon ruptures). transmitted by cysts in water
How is Entamoeba histolytica dx and tx? trophozoites with RBCs in stool or cysts with multiple nuclei in stool. Tx: metronidazole and iodoquinol
What disease does Cryptosporidium cause and how is it transmitted? sever diarrhea in AIDS Pt. mild watery diarrhea otherwise. transmitted thru cysts in the water
How is cryptosporidium Dx and tx? Dx: cysts on acid fast stain Tx: prevention by filtering water supplies
What disease does toxoplasma gondii cause and how is it transmitted? brain absess in HIV (ring enhancing lesion), congenital toxoplasmosis. transmitted via cysts in meat or cat feces. crosses placenta so pregnant stay away from cat
New born with chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications. disease? this is classic triad of congenital toxoplasmosis
How is toxoplasmosis gondii Dx and Tx? Dx via biopsy or serology. tx:sulfadiazine + pyrimethamine
What disease does Naelgeria fowleri cause and how is it transmitted? causes rapidly fatal meningoencephalitis. acquired from swimming in freshwater lakes. protozoa enter thru cribriform plate
How is Naelgeria fowleri dx and tx? dx by amoebas in spinal fluid. tx: amphotericin effective in a few survivors
What disease do Trypanosoma brucei, gambiense, rhodesiense cause and how is it transmitted? cause African sleeping sickenss: large LN, fever(due to Ag variance), somnolence coma. acquired from painful bite of tsetse fly
What is the Dx and Tx for Trypanosoma brucei in both blood borne disease and CNS penetration? Dx: blood smear Tx: suramin for blood bourne, melarsoprol for CNS (SURe is nice to sleep, MELetonin helps with sleep)
What disease (SX) do plasmodium spp cause and how are they transmitted? cause malaria: fever, HA, splenomegaly. Transmitted by anopheles mosquito
What is the pattern of malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax/ovale? 48 hr cycle. fever on 1st and 3rd day. dormant form in liver
What is the malaria pattern caused by Plasmodium falciparum? severe, ireegular fever patterns. parasitized RBCs occlude the brain, kidneys, lungs
What is the malaria pattern in an infection by Plasmodium malarie? 72 hour cycle
What is seen on a blood smear in Malaria? Plasmodium infection. see trophozoite ring. RBC schizont with merozoites
What is the Tx for malaria. what must be done if vivax/ovale? Begin with chloroquine (blocks plasmodium heme polymerase). if it resists use mefloquine. In vavax and ovale primaquine is used for the dormant form in the liver
What disease does Babesia cause and how is it transmitted? babesiosis. fever and hemolytic anemia in NE US. Acquied from Ixodes tick (can coinfect with Lyme)
Who is at special risk fro Babesiosis? asplenics
What is seen in a blood smear of Babesia? ring form, "Maltese Cross"
What is the Tx for Babesia? Qunine, clindamycin
What disease does trypanosoma cruzi cause and how is it transmitted? Chagas' disease(cardiomyopathy, megacolon, megaesophagus) in SA. Caused by reduviid bug (kissing) painless bite
How is Chagas' disease caused and how is it Dx and Tx? Caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Dx: blood smear Tx: nifurtimox
What disease does Leishmania donovani cause and how is it spread? Visceral leishmaniasis(kala-azar). spiking fevers, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia. Caused by sandfly
How is Leishmania donovani dx and tx? Dx: macrophage with amastigotes tx: sodium stibogluconate
What disease does Trichomonas vaginalis cause and how is it transmitted? vaginitis: fould smelling greenish discharge. itching and burning. bec carful not to confuse with gardenella. Only spread via sex
What is the Dx and Tx for Trichomonas vaginalis and tx? DX:motile trophozoites on wet mount. tx: metronidazole for pt and partner
What is the transmission and disease for Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)? trans: food contaminated with eggs dis: anal puritis (Scotch tape tests)
What is the Tx for Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)? -bendazoles or pyrantel pamoate, roundworm
What is the transmission and disease for Ascaris lumbricoides (giant roundworm)? trans: eggs visible in feces Dis: intestinal infectionm
What is hte Tx for Ascaris lumbricoides(giant roundworm)? -bendazoles or pyrantel pamoate,roundworm
What is the transmission and disease of Trichenella spiralis? undercooked meat esp pork. get inflammation of muscle, periorbital edema
How do you tx trichenella spiralis? -benazoles, roundworm
What is the transmission and disease of Strongyloides stercoralis? larvae in soil penetrate skin. get intestinal infection with vomiting diarrhea and anemia
How do you treat Strongyloides stercoralis? -bendazoles or ivermectin, roundworm
What is the disease and transmission of Ancylostoma duodenale. Necantor americanus (hookworms)? larvae penetrate skin of feet. get intestinal infection which can cause anemia due to parasite sucking blood from walls of intestine
How do you treat Ancylostoma duodenale. Necantor americanus (hookworms)? -bendazoles of pyrantel pamoate, roundworm
What is the disease and transmission of Dracunulus medinensis? in drinkign water. causes skin inflammation and ulceration
What is the Tx for Dracunculus medinensis? niridazole, prolonged extraction, worundworm
What is the the transmission and disease of Onchocera volvulus? transmitted by female blackflies. get hyperpigmented skin and river blindness. can have allergic reaction to microfilaria
How is onchcerca volvulus Tx? ivermectin (for (r)iver blindness), roundworm
What is the transmission and disease of Loa loa? from derr fly, horse fly, mango fly. get swelling of skin and worm crawling in conjunctiva
How do you treat Loa loa? diethylcarbamazine, roundworm
What is the transmission and disease of Wucheria bancrofti? female mosquito. get blockage of lymphatics. Takes 9 monnths after bite to get elephatiasis
How do you treat Wucheria bancrofti? diethycarbamazine, roundworm
What is the disease and transmission of Toxocara canis? food contaminated with eggs, causes granulomas(blindness in retina) and viceral larva migrans
How do you treat toxocara canis? diethylcarbamazine, roundworm
What is the transmission and disease of taenia solium? injestion of larvae encysted in prok leads to intestina ltapeworm. cystericosis, mass lesions in brain (Swiss cheese appearance)
What is the treatment for Taenia solium? Praziquantel, tapeworm
What is the disease and transmission of Diphyllobothrium latum? injestion of larvae in raw feshwater fish. causes vitamin B12 deficiency, resulting in anemia
What is the Tx for Diphyllobothrium latum? Praziqunatel, tapeworm
What is the transmission and disease of Echinococcus granulosus? What is a major risk of removal? eggs in dog feces if injest can cause cysts in liver. can get anaphylaxis if ag released from cysts(inject ethanol before removal)
How do you treat Echinococcus granulosus? -bendazoles, tapeworm
What is the disease and transmission of Schistosoma? What can a chronic infection with S. haematobium lead to? snails are host. cercariae penetrate skin of humans and cause granulomas and inflammation of sleen and liver. Chronic can lead to squamos cell carcinoma of liver
What is the tx for Schistosoma? Praziquantel, its a fluke
What is the transmission and disease of Clonorchis sinensis? What cancer is it associated with? undercooked fish, causes inflammation of billiary tract and pigmented gallstones. also associated with cholangicarcinoma
What is the Tx for Clonorchis sinensis? Praziquantel, its a fluke
What is the disease and transmission of Paragonimus westermani? undercooked crab meat. causes inflamamtion and secondary bacterial infection of lung. causing hemoptysis
How do you tx Paragonimus westermani? Praziquantel, its a fluke
What is a mnemonic for injested nematodes? Enterobius, Ascaris, Trichenella-you EAT them to get sick
What is a mnemonic for cutaneous nematodes? Strongyloides, Ancylostoma, Necator. Get into your feet from the SANd
Parasite, brain cysts and seizures. organism? Taenia solium 9cystercircosis)
Parasite, liver cysts. organism? Echinoccous granulosus
Parasite, B12 deficiency. prganism? Diphyllobothrium latum
Parasite, biliary disease, cholangiocarcinoma. organism? Clonorchisis sinensis
Parasite. hemoptysis. organism? Paragonimus westermani
Parasite. Portal HTN. organism? Schistosoma mansoni
Parasite. hematuria, bladder cancer. organism? Schistosome haemotobium
Parasite. microcytic anemia. organism? Ancylostome, Necator
Parasite. perianal pleuritis. organism? Enterobius
Created by: tjs2123



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