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Test3_Chapter 42

Endocrine Chapter 42

QuestionAnswer
acromegaly disease process resulting from excesive secretion of somatotropin; causes progressive enlargement of peripheral body parts.
addisonian crisis acute adrenocortical insufficiency;characterized by hypotension, cyanosism, fever, nausea/vomiting, and classic signs of shock; precipitated by stress or abrupt withdrawal of therapeutic glucocorticoids.
Addison's disease chronic adrenocortical insufficiency secondary to destruction of the adrenal glands.
adrenalectomy surgical removal of one or both adrenal glands.
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary, essential for growth and development.
adrenogenital syndrome masculinization in women, feminization in men, or premature sexual development in children; result of abnormal secretion of adrenocortical hormones, especially androgens.
androgens hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex; stimulate activity of accessory male sex organs and development of male sex characteristics.
basal metabolic rate chemical reactions occurring when the body is in rest.
calcitonin hromone secreted by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland; participates in calcium regulation.
Chvostek's sign spasm of the facial muscles produced by sharply tapping over the facial nerve in front of the parotid gland and anterior to the ear; suggestive of latent tetany in patients with hypocalcemia.
corticosteriods hormones produced by the adrenal cortex or their synthetic equivalents; also referred to as adrenal-cortical hormone and andrenocorticosteroid; consist of glucocorticoids, mineralcorticoids, and androgens.
cretinism stunted body growth and mental development appearing during the first year of life as a result of cogenital hypothyroidism.
Cushing's syndrome group of symptoms produced by an excess of free circulating cortisol from the adrenal cortex; characterized by truncal obesity, "moon face," acne, abdominal striae, and hypertension.
diabetes insipidus condition in which abnormally large volumes of dilute urine are excreted as a result of deficient production of vasopressin.
dwarfism generalized limited growth resulting from insufficient secretion of growth hormone during childhood.
endocrine secreting internally; hormonal secretion of a ductless gland.
euthyroid state of normal thyroid hormone production.
exocrine secreting externally; hormonal secretion from excretory ducts.
exophthalmos abnormal protrusion of one or both eyeballs.
glucocorticoids steriod hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex in response to ACTH; produce a rise of liver glycogen and blood glucose.
goiter enlargement of the thyroid gland; usually caused by an iodine-deficient diet.
Graves'disease a form of hyperthyroidism; characterized by a diffuse goiter and exopthalmos.
hormones chemical transmitter substances produced in one organ or part of the body and carried by the bloodstream to other cells or organs on which they have a specific regulatory effect; produced mainly by endocrine glands.
hypophysectomy removal or destruction of all or part of the pituitary gland.
mineralocorticoid steriod of the adrenal cortex.
myxedema severe hypothyroidism characterized by an accumulation of mucopolysaccharides in interstitial tissues, a masklike expression, puffy eyelids, loss of eyebrow hair, thick lips, and a broad tongue.
negative feedback regulating mechanism in which an increase or decrease in the level of a substance decreases or increases the function of the organ producing the substance.
oxytocin hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary; causes myometrial contraction at term and milk release during lactation.
pheochromocytoma chromaffin cell tumor, usually benign, located in the adrenal medulla; characterized by secretion of catecholamines resulting in hypertension, severe headache, profuse sweating, visual blurring, anxiety, and nausea.
syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the pituitary gland despite low serum osmolality level.
thyroidectomy surgical removal of all or part of the thyroid gland.
thyroiditis inflammation of the thyroid gland; may lead to chronic hypothyroidism or may resolve spontaneously.
thyroid-stimulating hormone released from the pituitary gland; causes stimulation of the thyroid; resulting in release of T3 and T4.
thyroid storm severe life-threatening hyperthyroidism precipitated by stress; characterized by high fever, extreme tachycardia adn altered mental state.
thyrotoxicosis condition produced by excessive endogenous or exogenous thyroid hormone.
thyroxine (T4) thyroid hormone; active iodine compound formed and stored in the thyroid; deiodinated in peripheral tissues to form triiodothyronine; maintains body metabolism in a steady state.
triiodothyronine (T3) thyroid hormone; formed and stored in the thyroid; released in smaller quantities, biologically more active and with faster onset of action than T4; widespread effect on cellular metabolism.
Trousseau's sign carpopedal spasm induced when blood flow to the are is occluded using a blood pressure cuff or tourniquet, causing ischemia to the distal nerves; suggestive sign for latent tetany in hypocalcemia.
vasopressin ADH secreted by the posterior pituitary; causes contraction of smooth muscle, particularly blood vessels.
Created by: jhrobins99