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Assessment Terms

Terms and Definitions for complete health assessment - Jarvis

ASSESSMENT TERMDEFINITION
amplitude / intensity how loud or soft a sound is
duration length of time a note lingers
pitch / frequency number of vibrations/cycles per second of a sound
quality / timbre subjective difference in a sound due to the sound's distinctive overtones
cutaneous pain pain originating from skin surface or subcutaneous structures
modulation pain message is inhibited during this last phase of nociception
neuropathic pain abnormal processing of pain message; burning, shooting in nature
nociception process whereby noxious stimuli are percieved as pain
referred pain pain felt at a particular site, but originating from another location
somatic pain originating from muscle, bone, joints, tendons or blood vessels
transduction first phase of nociception whereby the painful stimulus is changed into action potential
transmission second phase of nociception whereby the pain impulse moves from the spinal cord to the brain
visceral pain originating from interior organs such as the gall bladder or stomach
annular circular shape to skin lesion
bulla elevated cavity containing free fluid larger than 1cm diameter
confluent skin lesions that run together
erythema intense redness of skin due to excess blood in dilated superficial capillaries, as in fever or inflammation
excoriation self-inflicted abrasion on skin due to scratching
furuncle boil, suppurative inflammatory skin lesion due to infected hair follicle
hemangioma skin lesion due to benign proliferation of blood vessels in the dermis
iris target shape of skin lesion
keloid hypertrophic scar, elevated beyond site of original injury
lichenifcaiton tightly packed set of papules that thickens skin, from prolonged intense scratching
lipoma benign fatty tumor
macule flat skin lesion with only a color change
nevus mole; circumscribed skin lesion due to excess melanocytes
nodule elevated skin lesion, greater than 1 cm diameter
papule palpable skin lesion of less than 1cm diameter
plaque skin lesion in which papules coalesce or come together
pruritus itching
purpura red-purple skin lesion due to blood in tissues from breaks in blood vessels
pustule elevated cavity containing thick turbid fluid
telangiectasia skin lesion due to permanently enlarged and dilated blood vessels that are visible
vesicle elevated cavity containing free fluid up to 1cm diameter
lymphadenopathy enlargement of lymph nodes due to infection, allergy, or neoplasm
torticollis head tilt due to shortening or spasm of one sternomastoid muscle
anisocoria unequal pupil size
arcus senilis gray-white arc or circle around limbus of iris that is common with aging
Argyll Robertson pupil pupil does not react to light, but does constrict with accommodation
diplopia double vision
bitemporal hemianopsia loss of both temporal visual fields
blepharitis inflammation of the glands and eyelash follicles along the margin of the eyelids
chalazion infection or retention cyst of meibomian gland, showing as a beady nodule on the eyelid
ectropion lower eyelid loose and rolling outward
entropion lower eyelid rolling inward
exopthalmos protruding eyeballs
glaucoma group of eye diseases characterized by increased intraocular pressure
hordeolum stye; red, painful pustule that is localized infection of hair follicle at eyelid margin
lid lag abnormal white rim of sclera visible between upper eyelid and iris when a person moves eyes downward
miosis constricted pupils
mydriasis dilated pupils
nystagmus involuntary, rapid, rhythmic movement of the eyeball
presbyopia decrease in power of accommodation that ocurs with aging
pterygium triangular opaque tissue on the nasal side of the conjuctiva that grows toward the center of the cornea
ptosis drooping of upper eyelid over the iris and possibly covering pupil
strabismus squint, crossed eye; disparity of the eye axes
xanthelasma soft, raised yellow plaques occurring on the skin at the inner corners of the eyes
atresia congenital absence of closure of ear canal
otalgia pain in the ear
otitis externa inflammation of the outer ear and ear canal
otitis media inflammation of the middle ear and tympanic membrane
otorrhea discharge from the ear
tinnitus ringing in the ear
vertigo a spinning, twirling sensation - "the room is spinning"
aphthous ulcers "canker sores"; small painful round ulcers in the oral mucosa of unknown cause
candidiasis white, cheesy, curdlike patch on buccal mucosa due to superficial fungal infection
crypts indentations on surface of tonsils
cheilitis red,scaling, shallow painful fissures at corners of mouth
choanal atresia closure of nasal cavity due to congenital septum between nasal cavity and pharynx
epistaxis nosebleed, usually from anterior septum
epulis nontender, fibrous nodule of the gum
Fordyce's granules small, isolated, white or yellow papules on oral mucosa
Koplik's spots small, blue-white spots with red halo over oral mucosa; early sign of measles
leukoplakia chalky white, thick raised patch on sides of tongue; precancerous
malocclusion upper or lower dental arches out of alignment
papillae rough bumpy elevation on dorsal surface of tongue
fibroadenoma benign breast mass
intraductal papilloma serosanguinous nipple discharge
Montgomery's glands sebaceous glands in the areola, secrete protective lipid during lactation
Paget's disease intraductal carcinoma in the breast
atelectasis abnormal respiratory condition characterized by collapsed, shrunken, deflated section of alveoli
bronchophony spoken voice sound heard through the stethoscope, which sounds soft, muffled, and indistinct over normal lung tissue
Kussmaul's respiration a type of hyperventilation that occurs with diabetic ketoacidosis
orthopnea ability to breathe easily only in an upright position
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea sudden awakening from sleeping with shortness of breath
pleural efusion abnormal fluid between the layers of the pleura
rhonchi low-pitched, musical, snoring, adventitious lung sound caused by air-flow obstruction from secretions
clubbing bulbous enlargement of distal phalanges of fingers and toes that occurs with chronic cyanotic heart and lung conditions
physiologic splitting normal variation in S2 heard as two separate components during inspiration
paradoxical splitting opposite of a normal S2 split so that the split is heard in expiration, and in inspiration the sounds fuse to one sound
syncope temporary loss of consciousness due to decreased cerebral blood flow, caused by ventricular asystole, pronounced bradycardia, or ventricular fibrillation
thrill palpable vibration on the chest wall accompanying severe heart murmur
lymphedema swelling of extremity due to obstructed lymph channel, nonpitting
pulsus alternans regular rhythm, but force of pulse varies with alternating beats of large and small amplititude
pulsus bigeminus irregular rhythm, every other beat is premature; premature beats have weakened amplitude
pulsus paradoxus beats have weaker amplitude with respiratory inspiration, stronger with expiration
ascites abnormal accumulation of serous fluid within the peritoneal cavity, associated with congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, cancer, or portal hypertension
cholecystitis inflammation of the gallbladder
paralytic ileus complete absence of peristaltic movement that may follow abdominal surgery or complete bowel obstruction
pyrosis brning sensation in upper abdomen, due to reflux of gastric acid; heartburn
ankylosis immobility consolidation and fixation of a joint because of disease, injury, or surgery; most often due to chronic rheumtoid arthritis
ataxia inability to perform coordinated movements
bursa enclosed sac filled with viscous fluid located injoint areas of potential friciton
circumduction moving the arm in a circle around the shoulder
kphosis outward or convex curvature of the thoracic spine; hunchback
agnosia loss of ability to recognize importance of sensory impressions
agraphia loss of ability to express thoughts in writing
analgesia loss of pain sensation
aphasia loss of power of expression by speech, writing, or signs, or of comprehension of spoken or written language
apraxia loss of ability to perform purposeful movements in the absence of sensory or motor damage
chorea sudden, rapid, jerky, purposeless movement involving limbs, trunk or face
clonus rapidly alternating involuntary contraction and relaxation of a muscle in response to a sudden stretch
dysarthria imperfect articulation of speech due to problems of muscular control resulting from central or peripheral nervous system damage
dysphasia impairment in speech consisting of lack of coordination and inability to arrange words in their proper order
graphesthesia ability to "read" a number by having it traced on the skin
hemiplegia loss of motor power on one side of the body, usually cuased by a cerebral vascular accident; paralysis occurs on opposite side of lesion
myoclonus rapid sudden jerk of a muscle
nuchal rigidity stiffness in cervical neck area
paresthesia abnormal sensation, ie burning, numbness, tingling, prickling, crawling skin sensation
spasticity continuous resistance to stretching by a muscle due to abnormally increased tension, with increased deep tendon reflexes
sterognosis ability to recognize objects by feeling their forms, sizes, and weights while the eyes are closed
tremor involuntary contractoin of opposing muscle groups resulting in rhythmic movement of one or more joints
Created by: bjml