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Drug Effects

Oral Medication Absorbed from stomach or intestine Transported to the liver Released into general circulation
Intramuscular injection Gradually absorbed into the blood Blood transports drug
Topical Applied to the skin, eyes, or ears Local therapeutic effect
Transdermal Different than topical route as has systemic therapeutic effect Applied to skin – delivered through a patch Drug slowly released
Oral Most convenient and most common route SR: slow release, CR: control release, LA: long lasting, XL: extended length Tablets (enteric coated), capsules, liquids Absorbed in the stomach or small intestine
Sublingual Placing medication under the tongue Provides faster therapeutic effect than oral route
Buccal Placeing medication in the pocket between the cheeck and lower teeth Few drugs are administered by buccal route
Nasal Spraying a drug into the nasal cavity Usually done topically Some nasal spray drugs work systemically
Inhalation Inhalling a drug in a gas, liquid, or power form Absorbed through the alveoli
Nasogastric (NG) Used for patients who cannot take oral medications Accomplished through a nasogastric tube Inserted through the nose Through the esophasgus Into the stomach Any liquid drug that can be given orally
Gastrostomy and jejunostomy For patients who cannot take oral medications Surgically implanted feeding tubes Deliver liquid drugs to the stomach (gastrostomy) Deliver liquid drugs to the jejunum (jejunostomy) Any liquid drug that can be given orally
Vaginal Used to treat vaginal infections Creams, ointments, and suppositories Contraceptive foams are inserted vaginally
Rectal Not often used; reserved for certain situations When patient is vomitting or unconscious Medication cannot be given by injection Systemic absorption is slow and unpredictable Preferred to relieve constipation or treat hemorrhoids
Intraderma syringe to inject a liquid drug into the dermis; used for allergy scratch test and Mantoux test
Subcutaneous syringe to inject a liquid drug into the subcutaneous tissue; only a few blood vessels in this fatty layer, drugs absorbed more slowly than by intramuscular route.
Intramuscular- injection of a liquid drug into a muscle (well supplied with blood vessels; absorbed more quickly than s/c and better able to absorb large amount of liquid drug; muscle large enough so as not to injure a nerve
Intravenous- Intravenous- injection of liquid drug into a vein; fluid is hung from an IV pole, gravity moves the fluid through the tubing of alternatively, an IV pump can be used; therapeutic effect often seen immediately.
Bolus Whole amount injected in a short period of time Often referred to as IV push
IV infusion Injected into the fluid of a large IV bag Administered over several hours Known as an IV drip
IV piggyback Injected into the fluid of a small IV back attached to existing IV line.
Central Venous Line Used to continuously administer IV fluids or drugs special catheter tunneled through the subcutane3ous tissue of the upper chest Positioned in the superior vena cava
Endotracheal Tube Used to administer drugs through tube inserted in the mouth into the trachea Useful if no established intravenous access Drug is absorbed through the lung tissue and into the blood
Implatable Port Special intravenous access used to administer chemotherapy drug metal or plastic reservoir placed in subcutaneous pocket of tissue Administered by inserting a needle through the skin overlying the reservoir.
Intra-arterial Used to administer chemotherapy directly into the area of a cancerous tumor Catheter inserted into the main artery that brings blood to organ where cancer is located
Intra-articular Used to administer drugs to a joint Injected once every few weeks or months
Intracardiac Only used during emergency resuscitation Needle inserted through the check wall, between the ribs, and into one of the heart chambers
Intrathecal Used to administer drugs within the meninges around the spinal cord
Intravesical Used for the administration of chemotherapy drugs into the bladder Catheter unserted into the urethra
Intraperitioneal Used to administer drugs or fluids into the peritoneal cavity Catheter surgically implanted through the abdominal wall into peritoneal cavity Used to administer chemotherapy or dialysis fluid
Umbilical artery or vein Accessible only in newborn infants before the umbilical cord has dried Used to administer fluids and draw blood Generally not used to give drugs.
Created by: Burhoe222