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# S101A QT2

### Flash cards for S101A QT2 test

These six types of machines are * , * , * , * , * , and * . The lever, The Wheel and Axle, The Pulley, The Inclined Plane, The Wedge, and The Screw.
A machine can never do more work than the energy put into it. True/False TRUE
The wheel and axle is a * -class lever First
A * is the power required to perform one joule of work per second. Watt
A joule of work is done when 1 * of force moves an object 1 meter Newton
Energy equals power multiplied by * . Time
If there were no strong force, only one chemical element could exist- * . Hydrogen
A force acts by overcoming * . Inertia
All known forces are forms of four fundamental forces: * , * , * , and * . Gravitation, The Electromagnetic Force, The Strong Force, and The Weak Force.
Scientists also refer to the motion of a body in terms of a vector quantity-a combination of speed and direction known as * . Velocity
The heat that we use comes from six main sources: * , * , * , * , * , and * . The Sun, Earth, Chemical Reactions, Nuclear Energy, Friction, and Electricity.
Heat passes from one object or place to another by three methods: * , * , and * . Conduction, Convection, and Radiation.
When heat passes into or out of a substance, it may cause: * , * , and * . Changes in temperature, Changes in size, and Changes in state.
Engines can be divided into two groups: * and * . External-combustion engines and Internal-combustion engines.
The velocity of a water balloon at impact depends on the * from which it is dropped. Height
* is the pull of the moon and the sun contribute to the rise and fall of oceans. Tides
Einstein applied general relativity to * , the study of the universe as a whole. Cosmology
The two basic aerodynamic forces are * and * . Lift and Drag
If the angle of attack becomes too large, lift will decrease sharply, producing a condition called * . Stall
The * force propels a sailboat. Driving
An atom becomes an * when it gains or loses an electron and so acquires an electric charge. Ion
Materials known as * resist the movement of electric charge. Insulators
* occurs when electrons moving in the material collide with atoms and give up energy. Resistance
Most generators produce * current. Alternating
Electric power is measured in units called * . Watts
Explain how a steam electric generator works. *Steam electric power is made my heating water in a nuclear reactor or combustion chamber *The Steam turns a turbine, which runs a generator, which runs a rotor and stator *Exciter powers the rotor creating a magnetic field which produces an electric ch
Explain how a hydroelectric power plant works. *Hydroelectric power plants use falling water to turn a turbine and run a generator *A rotor gets powered, and both it and its magnetic field turn to create an electric charge *A transformer increases voltage coming from the stator
220,000 gauss equals * tesla. 22
Using the right hand rule, the thumb will always point toward the * pole. North
Green plants and other organisms, such as algae, use light from the sun to grow and to make food through a process called * . Photosynthesis
Low-energy photons have lower frequencies and * colors. Redder
A candle produces light through * . Combustion
* light lies at the center of the visible spectrum. Green
The speed of light in empty space is about * miles per second. 186,282
In the visible spectrum, the longest wavelengths appear * and the shortest wavelengths appear * . Red, Violet
The retina has two main types of light-sensitive cells-- * and * . Rods, Cones
* * * are common primary colors. Red, Yellow, and Blue.
Combining all three primary colors results in * light. White
A substance in which sound waves travel is called a sound * . Medium
The * of a sound is the number of waves that pass a given point each second and is measured in * . Frequency, Hertz
The apparent change in pitch produced by moving objects is called the * effect. Doppler
Natural vibration is called * . Resonance
Explain why sound can travel longer distances at night than during the day. Because sound travels faster in cooler temperatures, cooler temeratures at night are closer to the ground, therefor sound travels faster at night
Einstein’s * theory describes an entity known as space-time. Special
In Einstein’s * theory, matter and energy distort space-time. General
Einstein supported * , a movement to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine. Zionism
Galileo became convinced of the theory, proposed by the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus, that * * * * *. All planets, including the Earth, revolve around the sun.
Explain why the period doesn’t double when you double the length. The Period depends on a square root relationship between the pendulum’s length and an acceleration factor. This factor in turn depends on gravity where the pendulum is located.
During Galileo’s time, the Catholic church held to * theory that the sun and all the planets revolve around the earth. Ptolemy’s
Explain how historians see Galileo’s real originality. Historians maintain that Galileo's real originality was his simplistic way of aproaching scientific problems utilizing common sense and simple math descriptions
Newton invented a branch of mathematics, * , also invented independently by Gottfried Leibniz, a German mathematician. Calculus
Newton found that the force of universal gravitation makes every pair of bodies in the universe attract each other. The force depends on (1) the * of matter in the bodies being attracted and (2) the * between the bodies. Amount, Distance
* persuaded Newton to publish his findings, paid all the expenses, corrected the proofs, and laid aside his own work to publish Newton's discoveries. Halley
Fermi and other scientists used nuclear * to power the first atomic bombs in 1945. Fission
Fermi produced the first nuclear * * in 1942. Chain Reaction
Bohr assumed that when an electron jumps from an outer orbit to an inner one, it emits * . Light
Bohr suggested that the electrons in the outermost orbit determined the atom's * properties. Chemical
Explain the firsts achieved by Marie Curie with the Nobel Prize. Marie Curie was the first woman to receive a Nobel Prize and receive two of them: Physics and Chemistry
They found that uranium ore called * gave off much more radiation than could be accounted for by the amount of uranium known to be in the ore. Pitchblende Hawking is probably best known for his theories about * * .
Hawking suffers from * * * , an incurable disease of the nervous system. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Pascal became known for his experiments with fluids in physics and for his work on * theory in mathematics. Probability
Explain Pascal’s Law Fluid in vessels transmits pressure equally in all directions
Pascal worked on a defense of Christian faith published as * . Pensees
Discuss the difference between invention and discovery. A discovery is something that already exists and is observed or recognized for the first time and an invention is a creation of something new
The greatest spur to invention has been to satisfy the needs divided into three categories: (1) * needs, (2) * needs, and (3) * needs. Economic, Military, and Social.
Jonas E. Salk and Albert B. Sabin developed vaccines that help prevent * . Poliomyelitis
Discuss the factors a successful inventor must have. An inventor must have the knowledge, technical capacity, and a creative mindset to invent something
The Sumerians developed the first system of * . Writing
George Washington Carver developed hundreds of useful products from * . Peanuts
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