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Psychobiology 1

Blocks 1-4

Neuron doctrine= brain composed of individual, highly specialized cells (neurons) separated by functional space (synapses), not connected continuously as previously believed
2 other names for "cell body" soma, parikaryon
cellular fibers emerging from soma (2 types) unique to neurons dendrites (multiple), axon (one)
if a neuron is "active," what is it doing? releasing neurotransmitters
neurotransmitters are housed in ___ found in ___, located where on neuron? synaptic vesicles, pre-synaptic terminals/boutons, tip of axon
Purpose/function of dendrites input area- where neuronal information is received
neurotransmitters are released from __ and received onto specialized __ embedded in post-synaptic membrane of next cell pre-synaptic terminal, NT receptors
What % of NTs actually naturally bind to receptors? 10-15%
name specialized proteins embedded in membrane of pre-synaptic terminal that collects, binds, and transports unbound NTs back into pre-syn terminal for breakdown or re-use re-uptake pumps
Prozac is an example of what and what is it's function and why is it useful? SSRI (Selective Seratonin Re-uptake Inhibitor) which blocks re-uptake pumps so as to increase pool of available NTs by locking them in synapse
NEurons are characterized by how many neurites originate from soma- list different types (4) bipolar, unipolar (sensory), multipolar (majority), pyrimidal (motor skills)
Which early neuroscientist developed Law of Dynamic Polarization, deducing neuronal function from neuron structure? Ramon Cajal
When info flows from dendrite -> soma -> axon -> dendrite, this is passed through what sort of connection? axodendritic synapse
info passed from axon -> soma through what connection? axosomatic synapse
info passed from axon -> axon through what connection? axoaxonic synapse
info passed form axon -> synaptic terminal through what connection? axosynaptic synapse
T/F: cells can only be pre- or post- synaptic, but not both False, all are both and can send/rcv info
What is the purpose of the neuronal membrane? to separate intra- and extra- cellular environments
what do polar molecules (water for example) have, which organic, non-polar molecules (ex: carbon) do not? electrical charge
opposite charges __, while like charges __. attract, repel
organic/nonpolar molecules are "water-fearing" aka: hydrophobicity (vs hydrophilicity)
Phospholipid= phosphate (polar) head attached to lipid hydrocarbon (nonpolar tail: major component of nerve cell membranes)
Hydrophobic + hydrophilic regions= amphipathic
2 functions of proteins in neuronal membrane? form hydrophilic channels/pumps, float (fluid mosaic)
DNA is to alphabet as protein is to ___ words
Process of DNA -> RNA (production of an RNA copy of gene) is: transcription
Process of RNA -> assembly of amino acids in specific order to make proteins: Translation
Codes for specific amino acid sequence: m(essenger)RNA
2 roles of amino acids: make up bigger proteins, act as NTs
5 ways proteins are important for cell function peptide hormones, NT transporters and receptors, NT channels and pumps, structural proteins, enzymes
In what way are peptide hormones different from NTs? Released to blood stream as well as brain
Explain whether NT channels and pumps are active/passive Channels are passive (allow movement of cell-moving salts), pumps are active (forces them in or out)
A protein is an enzyme if.. it is a catalyst causing chemical reactions to create products from building blocks
PRocess of moving proteins and syn vesicles (NTs) from soma to pre-syn terminal is called (2 names) Orthograde/Anterograde Axoplasmic transport
process of moving proteins and syn vesicles toward soma Retrograde axoplasmic transport
Name of motor protein involved in anterograde transport kinesin (very fast/efficient)
Name of motor protein involved in retrograde transport dynein-dynactic
Goal of exocytosis Release contents of loaded syn vesicles into syn
List 3 steps of exocytosis 1. fusion of syn vesicle w/ plasma membrane 2. syn vesicle contents (hormonal signals/NTs) dumped into extracellular space 3. secretion
Explain process of endocytosis piece of membrane pinches back to form new vesicle
when is exocytosis > endocytosis? purpose of this? During neuronal growth, allows growth of axonic membrane in certain direction to connect with another neuron and form synapses
when is exocytosis < endocytosis? purpose of this? during neuronal pruning, bad match with another neuron so withdraws to allow re-direction
when is exocytosis = endocytosis (functional balance)? at a mature synapse/stable association between neurons
name the hypothesis which explains how neurites find their way during development? chemoaffinity hypothesis
according to chemoaffinity hypothesis, what are the chemical signals used and what is their role in neuronal development? trophic factors are released from neuron, if receptor is in vicinity, will feel gradient and put out own chemicals to guide growing neuron
name 2 trophic factors NGF (nerve growth factor), BDNF (brain derived neurotrophic factor)
name the tip of a growing neuronal axon and explain how it changes growth cone, sends out filopedia which flatten IF correct partner. Pre-/post- syn densities then appear (NT receptors/reuptake pumps)
explain neural plasticity in normal vs 2 abnormal forms normal= signal:protein receptors= 1:1 down-regn= pre-syn cell inc trophic influence -> dec protein to protect from over-stim of post-syn cell up-reg= pre-syn cell dec trophic influence -> inc protein to have better chance of catching signal
what is prob w/ down reg? post-syn cell = less sensitive to NT presence (ex. drug addiction- when off drug, dec in protein appears to be inability of function)
what is prob w/ up reg? post-syn cell = supersensitive to any remaining NT presence (ex. phantom limb pain)
name regeneration cells in PNS and describe role: Schwann cells- responsible for 1 axon, attach to neuron at site of injury -> sensitive scar tissue
name regeneration cells in CNS and describe role: oligodendrocyte- can respond to damage but can't get to all -> damage to CNS neurons = permanent. Responsible for many axons.
molecules are formed by __, which differ by structure of pos charged __ and neg charged __ atoms, nucleus, electrons
what is an ion? atom that has either lost or gained a charge
describe chemical composition of intracellular environment of neuron rich in potassium K+ like freshwater
describe chem composition of extracellular environment of neuron rich in sodium Na+ like sea water, Cl- and Ca++
Ion pore= __ in membranes which serve what purpose? proteins, channel from out to inside so cells can function
name of 1 protein and name of many proteins together monomer, polymer
name the 4 ions prevalent in intra/extra cellular env and abbrev Sodium Na+, Potassium K+, Chloride Cl-, Calcium Ca++
___ describes the process of disorder/chaos in system, making it less organized (aka Diffusion) Entropy
___= principle of opposites attracting (developing -charge stops flow of +charge leaving) Enthalpy
define equilibrium point where enthalpy (electrostatic force) balances entropy (diffusion force) for any charged ion
nernst equation determines balance potential (aka ___ w/ abbrev) Equilibrium Potential (Em)
Equilibrium potential= __ necessary to balance process of __ Electrical charge (mV), diffusion
Ek (Equilibrium potential for Potassium)= ? (w/ interpretation) -93mV -> inside of neuron must be 93mV more neg than outside for electrostatic force to balance diffusion force
an electrode measures __ (w/ abbrev) (aka resting potential) of a neuron, which is __ membrane potential (Vm)= -70mV
a neuron can either __ or __ electrical charge gain or lose
gaining pos charge -> upward deflection on oscilloscope= depolarization
gaining neg charge -> downward deflection on oscilloscope= hyperpolarization
define "force" of 3 ions on a neuron "passive leak" across membrane= charge leaking in or out (K, Na, Cl)
T/F: If an ion leaks the most (high permeability), it has the most influence on charge? True (resting potential (Vm) closer to Eq potential (Em) of K & Cl)
Order of permeability of 3 ions? K, Cl, Na
what is the predominant energy-consuming process in brain and how it works? sodium/potassium membrane pumps. Moves 3 sodium out and 2 potassium in to maintain ion gradient
name the electrically excitable domain axon
what effect does neg elec signal have on axon none, hyperpolarization equal to input
what effect does pos elec signal have on axon depolarization into region of instability in current/voltage relationship -> action potential (AP)
Describe what AP looks like: 1. reaches threshold (-60mV) 2. rapid depol -> almost reaches ENa (30-50mV= 'overshoot's 0) 3. rapid hyperpol -> almost reaches EK (-80mV= undershoots Vm) 4. gradual return of membrane potential to resting value (-70mV)
T/F: large amount of ions need to move for charge to change False
define conductance of an ion and give abbrev ability to move across membrane (gNa or gK etc)
describe AP in terms of ions and charge: 1. gain 10mV charge 2. inward pos current (Na rushes in) 3. outward pos current (K rushes out) 4. excess K diffuses away
describe AP in terms of conductance: 1. +10mV charge 2. -> inc gNa (voltage dependent) -> gNa turns self off (time dependent) 3. -> inc charge (more pos) -> inc gK (voltage dependent, less sensitive)
what happens to Na channels during AP? (gates) 1. at rest, 2 gates closed 2. AP: depol -> physical re-shaping to unblock channel for only millisec (spring action timer) 3. inactivation gate closes and stays closed (refractory period) regardless of state of other gate/timer until K channels close
what are the differences between Na & K channels (how is K diff?) 1. K has no inactivation gate, stays open until around Ek (-80mV) 2. Timer delays opening for 1 msec after depol
where on axon and in what direction does AP occur? at nodes of ranvier, away from soma
how does Na & K return to original intra/extra cellular sites? sodium/potassium pump (3 Na out, 2 K in)
name the other electrically excitable domain pre-syn terminal (elect. signal triggers NT release)
what type of channel exists only at pre-syn term? Ca
why is calcium an important piece of neuronal activity? Entry to terminal facilitates NT release: -activates fusion of vesicle proteins and membranes proteins -> bind and release (exocytosis) -frees bound reserve vesicles to free pool
what calcium-dependent enzyme is present in terminal which aids in release of bound vesicles? Kinase
what signals the postsyn potential NTs binding to receptors
what is the chemically excitable domain post syn region
what regulates ion conductance in chemically excitable domain? presence of NTs -> chemical signal
postsyn potential= small and variable changes in __ produced by __-activated ion channels membrane potential (Vm), transmitter
junction between soma and axon axon hillock
EPSP function/role conducive to AP (depol -> closer to threshold for AP)
IPSP function/role prevents hillock from reaching threshold (hyperpol/block depol)
2 ways to get excitatory effects (EPSP) Increase gNa or gCa/ Decrease gK
how to get inhibitory effect (IPSP) Increase gK or gCl
what happens when gCl is activated? slightly depol (ECl= -66mV) but holds Vm near ECl and blocks depol influence
Created by: maryel99