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Child Psycology

QuestionAnswer
A __________ is a specific time during development when a given event, or lack of an event, has the greatest impact. critical period
The totality of experiential influences on development is generally referred to as the environment.
Physical, cognitive, psychosocial development are what social scientists call the three __________ of the self. domains
The impact of technological developments such as video games, computers, and the internet are considered Answer normative history-graded influences.
During __________, children begin to develop self-control and have more interest in others. early childhood
Events that occur at about the same age for people around the world, such as starting school, are called normative age-graded influences.
Nonnormative life events are unusual events that influence a person’s life.
A group consisting of people united by ancestry, race, religion, language, or national origin is known as a(n) ethnic group
A __________ is a specific time during development when a given event, or lack of an event, has the greatest impact. critical period
During __________, children begin to develop self-control and have more interest in others. early childhood
Events that occur at about the same age for people around the world, such as starting school, are called normative age-graded influences.
Nonnormative life events are unusual events that influence a person’s life.
A group consisting of people united by ancestry, race, religion, language, or national origin is known as a(n) ethnic group.
A preschool program that is designed to focus on the change and stability in a child’s mental abilities constantly notes changes in the child’s __________ development. cognitive
Which of the following is NOT considered to be one of the major divisions of the lifespan? senescence
Kari is very tall for her age. She has less friends than her average-sized classmates. This is an example of the interaction between which two types of development? physical and psychosocial
A society or group’s total way of life, including customs, traditions, beliefs, values, language, and so on, is referred to as its culture.
Children become proficient in regulating their own behavior and are very interested in their peer group during middle childhood.
Conditions that increase the likelihood of a negative outcome or result are called __________ factors. risk
Donald is referred to as the “Mayor of the First Grade,” a title given to him because he gets along with everyone and seems to know everything that is going on. These skills demonstrate Donald’s level of __________ development. psychosocial
Human development studies are based on which of the following ideas? Every portion of the life span is influenced by earlier events and will in turn affect later events.
Child development is the scientific study of the processes that human beings undergo from the moment of conception through adolescence. The main focus of study is how children change.
When she was one year old, Suzi had a vocabulary of 10 words. Now, at two years of age, she has a vocabulary of over 100 words. This reflects a(n) __________ developmental change. cognitive
The unfolding of a natural, genetically influenced sequence of physical and psychological patterns is the result of maturation.
Normative history-graded influences include all of the following EXCEPT the death of a spouse.
Dietrich Tiedemann and Charles Darwin used the information obtained from __________ to support their early theories about child development. baby biographies
One-year-old Tamara’s height and weight, along with her newfound ability to walk, interact with her cognitive, personality, and social development.
Attachment is particularly important during which developmental stage? Infancy
Dr. Ortiz is a pediatrician who charts the growth of the body and the brain, and motor skills. Dr. Ortiz appears to focus on physical development.
In western societies, the dominant traditional family structure is the __________ family, while in other societies such as Asian and Latin America, the __________ family is more traditional. nuclear; extended
All of the individuals who were elementary school students in New York City when the World Trade Center towers collapsed shared a common experience. This group is referred to as a(n) historical generation.
Annette started crawling, then standing, and is now taking her first steps. This aspect of Annette’s development is best categorized as physical development.
In the case study involving “Genie,” researchers found that there is a critical period for language development.
Which of the following individuals are members of the same cohort? a high school student in Cleveland and a high school student in Cincinnati
The most common cause of infertility in men is low sperm production.
Klinefelter syndrome and Turner syndrome are caused by abnormalities of the sex chromosomes.
The __________ is the basic unit that determines inherited characteristics. gene
A pattern of inheritance in which certain characteristics carried on the X chromosome inherited from the mother are transmitted differently to her male and female offspring is called sex-linked inheritance.
More complex traits, such as intelligence, seem to be the result of an interaction between nature and nurture.
Which birth defect afflicts African-Americans more than it does other ethnic groups? sickle-cell anemia
Permanent genetic alterations that may produce harmful characteristics are called mutations.
How many pairs of chromosomes does a normal human being have? 23
When both parents carry an abnormal recessive gene, such as the gene for cystic fibrosis, each of their children has 1 chance in 2 of being a carrier.
Daniel and Nellie are hoping to maximize Nellie’s chances of becoming pregnant. When should they have intercourse? 14 days after the onset of menstruation
The chromosomes that do NOT determine sex are called zygotes.
A cell that has divided through mitosis possesses __________, whereas a cell that has undergone meiosis possesses __________. 23 pairs of chromosomes; 23 chromosomes
The idea that each child in a family grows up in a unique environment is referred to as nonshared environmental effects.
An individual’s __________ consists of that individual’s observable traits; an individual’s __________ is his/her underlying genetic pattern. phenotype; genotype
Dan and Fiona have decided to utilize technology to overcome their infertility problems. They opt to use a procedure in which a mature ovum is surgically removed, fertilized in a laboratory dish, and then implanted in the mother’s uterus. This technique i in vitro fertilization.
The normal complement of sex chromosomes for a woman is ___, and for a man it is ___. XX; XY
Fertilization usually takes place in the __________ as the ovum make the trip from the ovary to the uterus. fallopian tube
A strongly canalized trait is one that has a large reaction range.
A chromosomal disorder characterized by moderate-to-severe mental retardation and a downward sloping skin fold at the inner corners of the eyes is called Down syndrome.
The union of sperm and ovum to produce a zygote is known as fertilization.
A common female cause of infertility is blockage of the fallopian tube.
The process of cell division that produces copies of cells with 46 chromosomes is called mitosis.
If Carol and Robert both pass on the gene for red hair, their child will have red hair. This is an example of __________ inheritance. dominant
When the police ask you to give a description of an assailant and you say that she is tall with black, curly hair, you are describing the assailant’s phenotype.
A statistical estimate of how much heredity influences individual differences in a specific trait at a certain time within a given population is referred to as heritability.
Fred and Wilma have discovered that their infertility is due to Fred’s extremely low sperm count. In an attempt to get pregnant, Wilma has a doctor inject a collection of her husband’s sperm directly into her cervix. This procedure is called in vitro fertilization.
The science of genetics focuses on the inherited factors that affect development.
The sex of a child is determined by the sex chromosomes of the father.
A psychological disorder that is marked by a loss of contact with reality, includes such symptoms as hallucinations and delusions, and seems to have a strong genetic component is schizophrenia.
Genes that produce alternative expressions of a trait are called alleles.
Created by: niki5137