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GC Chapter 12

Neural Tissue

Division of PNS that brings sensory info to the NNS Afferent Division
Division of PNS that brings Motor commands to the muscles/glands from the CNS Efferent Division
Efferent Division of the PNS that controls motor function Somatic Nervous System
Efferent Division of the PNS that controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, adipose tissue, gland activity Autonomic Nervous System
Cytoplasm surrounding the neucleus Perikaryon
branches from the axon that can help the neuron communicate with many other cells Collaterals
Neuron found in brain/special sense organs, with undistinguishable axons and dendrites, found in brain/sense organs Anaxonic Neurons
Neuron that relay sight, sound or smell, have two process separated by a cell body, found in sight, sound and hearing organs Bipolar Neuron
Most common neuron in sensory neuron, has a single elongate process, with cell body off to the side, found in sensory nerves of PNS Unipolar Neuron
Most common neuron in CNS, motor neurons that control skeletal muscle, common in the CNS, skeletal muscle neurons Multipolar Neuron
Receptors that monitor the position and movement of the skeletal muscles and joints Proprioceptors
Neuroglia of CNS that line ventricles in the brain/central canal of the spinal cord, produces CSF Ependymal Cells
Neuroglia of CNS that maintains blood/brain barrier,absorbs and recycles neurotransmitters Astrocytes
Neuroglia of CNS that myelienate CNS axon, provide structural framework Oligodendrocytes
Neuroglia of CNS that remove debris,waste, pathogens by phagocytosis Microglia
Neuroglis of PNS that surround neuron cell bodies in ganglia, regulate O2 and CO2 nutrient and neurotransmitter levels around neurons in ganglia Satellite Cells
Neuroganglia of PNS that surround all axon of PNS to mylienate PNS axons Schwann Cells
temporary local change in the resting potential of the cell membrane, decreases with distance Graded Potential
electrical impulse that is spread along the surface of the axon, does not diminish as it moves away from the source Action Potential
a shift from the resting potential of the cell membrane closer to 0 depolarization
The process of restoring resting potential after depolarization repolarization
the loss of positive ions, causing an increase in the negativity of the resting potential, (-70mv to -80mv)decreases with distance Hyperpolarization
Initial refractory period lasting 0.4-1.0 msec Absolute refractory period
Refractory period when sodium channels return to resting condition, until membrane potential stabilizes at resting levels Relative Refractory period
Nerves of the Efferent division of Nervous system that innervates skeletal muscle Somatic motor neurons
Nerves of the Efferent division of Nervous system that innervate peripheral effectors, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, glands,adipose tissue Visceral Motor Neurons
If resistance is high the current is Small
If resistance is low the current is Large
Channels that are always open but change shape in response to local conditions Leak channels
Channels that open/close in response to specific stimuli gated channels
Channels that open after binding with specific chemicals Chemically gated channels
Type of axon fibers, large diameter/myelinated, speeds up to 120m/s Type A
Type of axon fibers, smaller diameter/mylientated speeds up to 18m/s Type B
Type of axon fibers, smallest diameter/unmyelienated, speeds up to 1m/s Type C
Synapses in which membranes are locked together by gap junctions, in some areas of the brain, eye and in one pair of PNS ganglia Electrical Synapses
Most abundant type of synapse, cells are not directly coupled, postsynaptic cell is not a slave to the presynaptic cell Chemical Synapses
Neurotransmitter of Adrenergic synapses, distributed in the brain and portions of ANS Norepinephrine
CNS neurotransmitter that effects precise control of movement Dopamine
CNS neurotransmitter that effect a person's attention and emotional states Serotonin
CNS neurotransmitter that has an inhibitory effect GABA
gas generated by synaptic terminals that innervate smooth muscle in thw waslls of blood vessels in the PNS and synapses in several regions of the brain Nitric Acid
gas generated by specialized synaptic terminals in the brain, functions as a neurotransmitter Carbon Monoxide
Neurotubules, neurofilments, neurofibrils Components of Neuron cytoskeleton
Dense areas of RER and ribosomes, makes the appearence of gray matter Nissl Bodies
cytoplasm and perikaryon Cell body
80-90% surface area of neuron, fine processes that recieve info from other neurons Dendrites
Carries signal to target axon
Cytoplasm of axon, contains neurotubles neurofibrils, enzymes and organelles Axoplasm
Specialized cell membrane of axon, covers axoplasm Axolemma
Initial segment of axon Axon Hillock
Where a neuron communicates with another cell Synapse
Chemical Messengers that released at presynaptic membrane, affect postsynaptic membrane, broken down by enzyme and reassembled in the synaptic terminal Neurotransmitters
Afferent neurons of the PNS Sensory Neurons
Efferent neurons of the PNS Motor Neurons
Monitor internal systems, internal senses Interoceptors
Monitor external senses, distance senses Exteroceptors
Temporary, local changes in resting potential caused by a stimulus Graded Potential
electrical impulse, produced by graded potential, propogates along axon to the synapse Action Potential
slower movement of action potential down the axon, occurrs in unmyelienated axons continuous propagation
faster movement of action potential down the axon, occurs in myelienated axons, depolarization occurs only at nodes saltatory propagation
when a neurotransmitter cannot replenish fast enough to meet the demands of an intense stimulous synaptic fatigue
occurrs between arrival of action potential at synaptic terminal and effect of postsynaptic membrane Synaptic delay
neuromodulators that bind to same receptors as morphine and opium and relieve pain opioid peptides
graded potentials that occur in postsynaptic membrane in response to neurotransmitters, IPSP, EPSP postsynaptic potential
Graded hyperpolarization of postsynaptic membrane IPSP
graded depolarization of postsynaptic membrane EPSP
multiple EPSPs at one synapse temporal summation
stimuli arrive at multiple synapses spatial summation
when EPSPs accumulate to raise membrane potential closer to threshold so a small stimuli can trigger an action potential facilitation
Directly opens Cl- channels, directly opens K+ channels and block entry of Ca2+ GABA
Indirectly G protiens and second messengers, Directly opens Ca2+/Na+ channels on pre/postsynaptic membranes Glutmate
an enzyme complex coupled to a membrane receptor G Proteins
Created by: 100000860991270