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Step 1 10.2.12

Microbiology III

G+, anaerobe, branching filaments, not acid fast. pathogen? Actinomyces
G+, aerobe, branching filaments, acid fast. pathogen? Nocardia
G+, anaerobe, rods. pathogen? Clostridium
G+, arobe, rods. pathogen? Bacillus
G+, rods, can be anaerobe or aerobe. pathogens? Corynebacterium, Listeria
G+ cocci clusters, catalase +, coagulase +. pathogen? Staph. aureus
G+ cocci clusters, catalase +, coagulase -, novobiocin sensitive. pathogen? Staph. epidermidis
G+ cocci clusters, catalase +, coagulase -, novobiosin resistant. pathogen? Staph. saprophyticus
G+ cocci chains, catalase -, partial (green hemolysis) alpha, capsule, wont grow in bile, optochin sensitive. pathogen? Strep. pneumoniae
g+ cocci chains, catalase -,complete hemolysis beta, bacitracin sensitive. pathogen? Strep pyogenes. Group A
G+ cocci chains, catalase -, partial (green hemolysis) alpha, no capusle, optochin resistant, insoluble in bile. pathogen? Viridans strep
G+ cocci in chains,catalse -, complete hemolysis beta, bacitracin resistant. pathogen? Step. agalactiae. Group B
G+ cocci in chains, catalase -, no hemolyisis (gamma). no growth characteristcs. Pathogen? Enterococcus (E. faecalis). not can be alpha or gamma hemolytic
G+ cocci in chains, catalase -, no hemolyis (gamma), grows in bile, not in 6.5% NaCl. pathogen? Strep Bovis
What are the 3 types of hemolysis? alpha= partial, green. beta= complete, clear gamma= none
Which is resistant to novobiocin, Staph saprophyticus or staph epidermidis. how to remember? Sapro=resistant. Epidermitis=sensitive. On Stap retreat, tje was NO StRES
Which resists optochin, Strep viridans or Strep pneumoniae? Viridans is resistant. OVRPS (overpass)
Which resists bacitracin, Group B or Group A strep? Group B resists. B-BRAS
What 2 organisms cause alpha hemolysis in blood agar? Strep pneumoniae (optochin sensitive), Viridans Strep (optochin resistant)
What type of hemolysis is seen in an organism that is catalase and coagulase +? Staph aureus. beta hemolytic
What type of hemolysis is seen in catalase - and bacitracin sensitive organism? group A strep. Strep pyogenes. beta hemolysis
What type of hemolysis is seen in catalase -, bacitracin resistant organism? Group B strep. Strep. agalactiae, beta hemolyisis
What type of hemolysis is seen in an organims with tumbling motility, causing meningitis in a newborn and in unpasterized milk? Listeria. see beta hemolysis
What is the form of staph. aureus and what is its virulence factor and super antigen? G+ cocci in clusters. virulence: Protein A which binds Fc-IgG. inhibiting complement fixation and phagocytosis. SAg: TSST- binds MHC II and TCR causing poly clonal T cell proliferation
What is seen in Staph. aureus food poisoning and how is it caused? due to injestion of preformed enterotoxin. causes endocarditis, osteomyelitis
What are the ways Staph aureus causes disease? 1. Inflammatory- skin infection, organ absesses 2. Toxin mediated- TSSt, scalded skin (exfolaitive), rapid onset food posioning (enterotoxin) 3. as MRSA
What is MRSA and how is it resistant? methicillin resistant Staph. Aureus. nosocomial infections. Resists Beta lactams due to altered penicillin binding protein
How does Staph. epidermidis cause disease? normal skin flora, can contamiate a blood culture. infects via prostetic devices or IV catheters
What is the most common cause of meningitis, otitis media, pneumonia, and sinusitis? Strep. pneumoniae
What is a pneumonic for Strep pneumoniaes vulnerability and diseases? MOPS (meningitis, otitis media, pneumonia, sinustis) OPtochin sensitive
What pathogen is assoicted with rusty sputum, sepsis in SCA and splenectomy? Strep. pneumoniae
What bacteria is G+ lancet shaped diplococci that is encapsulated? how does it infect the respiratory tract? Strep. pneumoniae. is able to infect due to IgA protease
What diseases does Viridans strep cause, how do you differentiate them on growth media? normal flora of oropharynx. dental caries (S. mutans), bacterial endocarditis ( S. sanguis) at damaged valves. Alpha hemolytic but will be resistant to optochin (in mouth, not afraid of the optoCHIN)
What species is Group A strep? Strep pyogenes
An infection of the pharynx with what pathogen can lead to scarlet fever? Strep. pyogenes
What diseases does Strep pyogenes cause? 1. pyogenic-pharyngitis, cellulitis, impetigo 2. toxigenic- scarlet fever, toxic shock like syndrome 3.immunologic- glomerular nephritis, rheumatic fever
What are the Sx for rheumatic fever and what pathogen precedes it? no RHEUM for SPECCulation: Subcutaneous plaques, polyarthritis, Erythema marginatum, Chorea, Carditis. Preceded by Staph pyogenes infection
What causes Rheumatic fever? Ab to M protein of Strep pyogenes
How do you differentiate between Strep pyogenes and Strep agalactiae? pyogenes is bacitracin sensitive.
What titer is useful for detecting recent S. pyogenes infection? ASO titer
What is group B Strep and what diseases does it cause? Strep agalactiae. lives in vagina. so causes pnaumonia, meningitis and sepsis mainly in babies. B for Babies!
What pathogen produces CAMP factor, and what does it do? made by Strep agalactiae (group B), enlarges area of beta hemolyisis of Staph. aureus
When should pregnant women be screened for group B strep and how is it treated? Screened 35-37 weeks. tx with intrapartum penicillin prophylaxis
What are enterococci (Group D) and what disease do they cause? normal colonic flora, peniccillin G resistant. cause UTI and subacute endocarditis
What composes Group D strep? enterococci, and non enterococii group D. have same C carbohydrate on bacterial cell wall
How do you differentiate b/w enterococcal and nonenterococcal group D in the lab? enterococci are hardier and will grow in 6.5% Na CL and bile
What is VRE and what does it cause? vancomysin resistant enterococci, important source of nosocomial infectionm
What is strep bovis and what disease does it cause? colonizes gut. can cause bacteremia, subacute endocarditis in colon cancer pt
What is the pathogenenis of Corynebacterium diptheriae? diptheria via exotoxin encoden on Beta prophage. Exotoxin inibits EF-2
A grayish White pseudomembrane on the pharynx and lympadenopathy describes what disease? Diptheria
How do you Dx diptheria? gram + rods with red and blue granules and Elek test for toxin. grows on tellurite agar
What is a useful pneumonic for diptheria infection? ABCDEFG: ADP ribosylation(of EF-2), Beta-prophage, Corynebacteria, Diptheria, EF-2, Granules
What is the advantage of a bacteria froming spores? how do you kill them? highly resistant to heat and chemicals. dipicolic activity but no metabolic. must autoclave to kill
What bacteria from spores? G+ rods. In soil: Bacillus antracis, Clostridium perfingens, C tetani. Other: B. cereus, C. botulinum, Coxiella burnetti
What is the pathogeneis of tetanus from Clostridium tetani? Tetanic paralysis: blocks GABA and glycine relase from Renshaw cells in SC, causes spastic paralysis, trismus, risus sardonicus
Where do you get botulism and what does it cause? from bad food and honey. get flaccid paralysis
What is the pathogenesis of C. botulinum? toxin prevents aCH release at NMJ. spores in honey for babies. preformed toxin for adults
What is the pathogeneisis of Clostridium perfingens? produces alpha toxin that causes gas gangerene
What 2 toxins does Clostridium difficle produce and how do they cause disease? Toxin A: enterotoxin binding brush border of gut Toxin B: cytotoxin destroying cytoskelton of enterocytes causing a pseudomembranous collitis.
What does C. difficle cause and how do you treat? diarrhea, tx: metronidazole or oral vancomycin
How does C. difficle infection happen, how do you Dx? usually secondary to abtx: clindamycin, ampicillin. Dx with toxin in stool
What is the only bacteria with a polypeptide capsule? Bacillus anthracis: G+ spore former
What does anthrax cause and how? black skin lesions. necrosis surrounded by edematous ring. caused by lethal factor and edema factor
What is cutaneous anthrax and sx? contact with spores. get painless ulcer and can progress to bacteremia and death
What is pulmonary anthrax? inhale spores, get flu like Sx rapidly progressing to fever, pulmonary hemorrhage, mediastinitis, shock
What is Woolsorter's disease? inhalation of anthrax spores from contaminated wool
How do you get Listeria and how does it move? facultative intracellular microbe. injestion of unpasterized milk/cheese or from vagina during birth. moves characteristcally by tumbling via actin rockets
What does Listeria cause? amnionitis, septicemia, spontaneous abortuon. granulomatosos infantseptica, neonatal meningitis. meningitis in ICPt. gastroeneteritis in normal people
How do you Tx Listeria? usually self limited. ampicillin in infants, ICPt, and elderly
What is Actinomyces and what diseases does it cause? G+ rods, with filamentous branching. oral flora aneraerobe. causes oral/facial absesses. Israelii causes sulfur granules in sinuses
What is Nocardia and what disease does it cause? G+ filamentous aerobe, weakly acid fast. causues pulmonary infection in ICPt
What is a Mnemonic fro the treatment of Actinomyces and Nocardia? SNAP: Sulfa for Nocardia, Actinomycs=penicillin
When is a PPD Tb test +? if current infection, past exposure or BCG vaccinate
When is PPD tb test -? no infection or anergic ( steroid, malnutrition, ICPt, sarcoid)
Where does primary Tb usually happen? Ghon focus in lowerr lobes. can cause death but most usually recover
What is secondary Tb and where is the lesion? udsually upper lobes. in partially immune hyepersenstized adult. get a reactivation causing extapulmonary Tb in CNS, Verterbral boy (Pott's disease), kidney, GI etc.
A caseating granuloma with a multinucleated langerhans cell. disease? Tb
what is a Ghon complex? What does it indicate? TB granuloma (Ghon focus + lobar and perihilar LN invov;lement. Shows primiry infection or exposure with Tb
What does Mycobacterium kansasii cause? usually reservoirs, causes Tb like sx
What does Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare cause and Tx? disseminated disease in AIDS Pt. Tx prophylactically with azithromycin
How are all mycobacteria statined? acid fast
What is the reservoir for Mycobacterium leprae in the US? What does it like to live in? armadillos. likes cool temps so infects skin and superficial nerves
How do you treat leprosy (Hansen's Disease)? long term oral dapsone, alternatively rifampin and combo clofazimine and dapsone
What are the toxicites of dapsone? hemolysis and methemoglobinemia
What are the 2 froms of Hansens disease? 1. lepromatous: diffusely over skin, communicable, characterized w low cell immunity, Th2 response 2. tuberculois, few plaques, high cell immunity with TH1 immune response
What from of hansen's disease can kill you and what type of immune response? lepromatous, TH2 resposne
Created by: tjs2123



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