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Chapter 11

Microbiology - Part 1

QuestionsAnswers
This MICROBIOLOGY stack covers chapter 11. (blank)
Q: Staphylococcus aureus A: Gram pos. cocci / Acute Endocarditis, Impetigo, Boils, Scalded Skin Syndrome, Toxic Shock Syndrome, Food Poisoning, Folliculitis, Furuncle, Carbuncle, Osteomyelitis, Wound Infection
Q: Staphylococcus epidermidis A: Gram pos. cocci / Subacute Endocarditis, Skin Infections, UTI
Q: Staphylococcus saprophyticus A: Gram pos. cocci / causes UTI
Q: Streptococcus pyogenes (group A, beta hemolytic) A: Gram pos. cocci / causes strep throat (pharyngitis), necrotizing fascitis, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, impetigo, erysipelas, cellulitis, glomerulonephritis, otitis media, sinusitis
Q: Streptococcus pneumoniae (alpha hemolytic) A: Gram pos. cocci / cause pneumonia & meningitis
Q: Streptococcus Agalactiae (group B, beta hemolytic) A: Gram pos. cocci / causes neonatal septicemia, pneumonia, meningitis
Q: Streptococcus mitis A: Gram pos. cocci / viridans group / causes dental caries, subacute endocarditis
Q: Streptococcus mutans A: Gram pos. cocci / viridans group / causes dental caries, subacute endocarditis
Q: Streptococcus salivarius A: Gram pos. cocci / viridans group / causes dental caries, subacute endocarditis
Q: Enterococcus faecalis (group D, gamma hemolytic) A: Gram pos. cocci / causes UTI, endocarditis, septicemia, appendicitis
Q: There are three medically significant groups of Gram + bacteria. What are they and what species would be found in each? A: The three groups are A, B, and D. Group A (Streptococcus pyogenes), group B (Streptococcus agalactiae), and group D (Enterococcus faecalis)
Q: Neisseria gonorrhea A: Gram neg. cocci / causes gonorrhea, ophthalmia neonatorum
Q: Neisseria meningitides A: Gram neg. cocci / causes meningitis, Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome
Q: Bacillus anthracis A: Gram pos. rod / causes respiratory anthrax (wool-sorters’ disease), gastrointestinal anthrax (very rare), cutaneous infection
Q: Bacillus cereus A: Gram pos. rod / causes gastroenteritis, food poisoning
Q: Clostridium tetani A: Gram pos. rod / anaerobic / causes tetanus (lock jaw)
Q: This inhibits inhibitory neurons A: Clostridium tetani
Q: Clostridium botulinum A: Gram pos. rod / anaerobic / causes botulism
Q: This blocks acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. A: Clostridium botulinum
Q: Clostridium difficile A: Gram pos. rod / anaerobic / causes pseudomembranous colitis, dental caries
Q: Clostridium perfringens A: Gram pos. rod / anaerobic / causes gas gangrene
Q: What two genuses form endospores? A: Bacillus and Clostridium
Q: Non-spore forming Gram + rods are broken down into how many subgroups? What are those subgroups? A: Non-spore forming Gram + rods are broken down into two subgroups based on morphology: Regular shape and irregular shape
Q: Lactobacillus acidophilus A: Gram pos. rod / Non-spore forming / regular / important in food industry (yogurt)
Q: Listeria monocytogenes A: Gram pos. rod / non-spore forming / regular / causes meningitis and sepsis in newborns
Q: Corynebacterium diphtheriae A: Gram pos. rod / non-spore forming / irregular / causes diphtheria
Q: Propionibacterium acnes A: Gram pos. rod (yes, the handout is wrong) / anaerobic / casues acne vulgaris (acne)
Q: Escherichia coli A: Gram - / facultative anaerobe / bacilli / UTI, Gastroenteritis, Dysentery, Sepsis, Pneumonia, Travelers’ Diarrhea, Meningitis, Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
Q: Salmonella typhi A: Gram neg. rod / facultative anaerobe / causes typhoid fever
Q: Salmonella enteritidis A: Gram neg. rod / facultative anaerobe / causes gastroenteritis
Q: Salmonella typhimurium A: Gram neg. rod / facultative anaerobe / causes enterocolitis
Q: Name the four species of genus Shigella A: Shigella flexneri, S. boydii, S. sonnei, S. dysenteriae
Q: Genus Shigella A: Gram neg. rod / facultative anaerobe / non-motile / fecal-oral transmission / endotoxin, enterotoxin, Shiga toxin (A&B subunits) / causes dysentery or shigellosis
Q: Genus Yersinia A: Gram neg. rod / facultative intracellular / grows at 28 degrees C / causes bubonic plague
Q: Klebsiella pneumonia A: Gram neg. rod / facultative anaerobe / #1 cause of nosocomial infections / Pneumonia (bloody sputum)
Q: True or false? All Staphylococci are catalase positive. A: True!
Q: How often should you get a DaPT injection? A: Every 10 years.
Q: Serratia marcescens A: Gram neg. rod / facultative anaerobe / motile / direct contact causes nosocomial infections such as UTI, Pneumonia & wound infections
Q: Name the enteric bacteria discussed in this chapter. A: Proteus, E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Serratia & Enterobacter.
Q: Genus Proteus A: Gram neg. rod / enteric / facultative anaerobe / highly motile / urease pos. / causes UTI
Q: What disease is caused by genus Proteus? And what enzyme is produced by genus Proteus? A: Genus Proteus produces urease and is a frequent cause of urinary tract infections (UTI).
Q: Name the disease, signs and symptoms caused by genus Shigella. A: Shigella causes shigellosis, AKA bacillary dysentery (S. sonnei is #1 cause in industrial world). Patients present with fever, dysentery, vomiting, headache, stiff neck, convulsions and painful joints.
Q: Name the disease, signs and symptoms caused by Salmonella typhi. A: Salmonella typhi causes typhoid fever. Patients present with fever, severe headache, and abdominal pain followed in some cases by intestinal rupture, internal bleeding, shock and death.
Q: Haemophilus influenzae A: Gram neg. rod / aerobic / non-motile / pleomorphic / #1 cause of meningitis & otitis media in children, in adults 2nd most common cause of community acquired pneumonia
Q: Name the disease caused by Haemophilus ducreyi, type of ulcer & how it’s transmitted. A: H. ducreyi causes the STD chancroid which is characterized by single or multiple painful soft chancres and painful and enlarged regional lymph nodes.
Q: Among sexually transmitted diseases, which is most common? A: Gonorrhea is the most common (caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae) followed by chancroid (caused by Haemophilus ducreyi).
Q: What is the most common cause of community acquired pneumonia? A: Streptococcal pneumoniae
Q: Name the disease caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae and the type of population it affects? A: K. pneumoniae is a common cause of nosocomial pneumonia. It tends to affect people with underlying diseases such as alcoholism, diabetes, chronic lung disease and those who are immunocompromised.
Q: What is the natural reservoir of the condition known as Black Death? Which bacterium is responsible for this condition? A: Black Death, also known as the Bubonic Plague, is caused by Yersinia enterocolitica. The natural reservoir of the disease is rodents.
Q: Genus Vibrio A: Gram neg. vibrio / facultative anaerobe / motile (single flagellum) / causes cholera
Q: Name the disease caused by Vibrio cholerae and list the major signs & symptoms. A: V. cholerae causes cholera which can be asymptomatic to severe sudden onset vomiting, headache, intestinal cramping, low grade fever & painless voluminous diarrhea (RICE WATER STOOL).
Q: If you are asked to name the natural host of Campylobacter jejuni, are you going to answer, ducks? A: Of course not because you remember how she made such a big deal about the fact that when we think of poultry we should be thinking chicken.
Q: Name the diseases caused by Campylobacter jejuni. A: C. jejuni is the most common cause of diarrhea and complications of the disease.
Q: Helicobacter pylori A: Gram neg. spiral shaped / microaerophilic / motile (multiple flagella) / causes gastritis, peptic ulcers & stomach cancer
Q: What is the common cause of peptic ulcer disease? A: Helicobacter pylori… Duodenal ulcers: 95% related to H. pylori - Gastric ulcers: 80% related to H. pylori
Q: A gram negative rod that DOES NOT produce endospores is a definition of what? A: Enteric bacteria
Q: Name the four strains of E. coli A: Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEP).
Q: Know that you know the four strains of E. coli, what diseases do they cause? A: ETEC (traveler’s diarrhea and diarrhea in infants), EIEC (disease similar to that caused by Shigella), EPEC (diarrheal outbreaks in hospital nurseries and in bottle-fed infants), EHEP (bloody diarrhea [dysentery] and hemolytic uremic syndrome).
Q: What is the difference between diarrhea and dysentery? A: Diarrhea is fecal matter, mucus & puss… add blood to the mix and you’ve got dysentery.
Q: What is the most common cause of UTI? A: Escherichia coli (E. coli)
Q: So which is which? Is Streptococci catalase positive or negative? What about Staphylococci? A: Streptococci are catalase negative and Staphylococci are catalase positive.
Q: Genus Treponema A: Spirochetes / gram neg. cell wall / motile / causes STD syphilis
Q: Which species of genus Treponema causes syphilis? A: Treponema pallidum
Q: How many stages are present in syphilis? A: There are three stages, primary, secondary and tertiary.
Q: Of the three stages of syphilis, which are infectious? A: The primary and secondary stages are infectious.
Q: What is the causative agent of Lyme disease? A: Borrelia burgdorferi
Q: What is the vector of Lyme disease? A: The deer tick (it is estimated that 80% of ticks on the east coast are infected). Ticks usually go from mice to humans.
Q: How are symptoms of Lyme disease divided? A: Into three stages, stage 1, 2 & 3.
Q: Describe stage 1 Lyme disease. A: Stage 1 is a few days to weeks after tick bite. Stage 1 is characterized by erythema migrans (bull’s eye rash seen in 2/3 of cases), red bump to circle of 15cm, fatigue, chills, fever, stiff neck, joint and muscle pain.
Q: Describe stage 2 Lyme disease. A: 2 to 8 weeks after rash. Affects heart (electrical conduction impaired, dizziness & fainting) & nervous system (paralysis of face, severe headache, pain on moving eyes, difficulty concentrating, emotional instability, nerve impairment of arms and legs)
Q: Describe stage 3 Lyme disease. A: Stage 3 happens about six weeks after rash and happens in 60% of the untreated cases. Stage 3 is characterized by joint pain, swelling and tenderness of large joints, and chronic nervous system impairment (localized pain, paralysis, and depression).
Q: Genus Chlamydia A: Gram neg. rod / obligate intracellular parasite / most common cause of STD / infectious form = elementary body, non-infectious form = reticulate body
Q: What is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis? A: Trachoma & lymphogranuloma. In the USA it is the primary cause of nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), epididymitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and in neonates it causes ophthalmia neonatorum and pneumonia. Leading cause of blindness worldwide.
Created by: PCC Microbiology