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A&P 1 chp 6-7

Chapter 6 and 7 A&P 1 skeleton DelTech test

How many cervical vertebra do humans have? 7. They are labeled C1 through C7.
What is the C1 vertebra called? The atlas. Think of it as the vertebra that holds up the skull like the Greek Titan (called Atlas) who held up the sky.
What is the C2 vertebra called? The axis.
Which vertebra does the occipital bone sit on? The axis, C2.
How many vertebra are in the thoracic? 12. They are labeled T1 through T12.
How many vertebra are in the lumbar? 5. They are labeled L1 through L5.
What is another word for the odontoid process? The dens.
What does the dens keep in place? (Along with the muscles and tendons in your neck?) The skull.
What is the sacrum? The large triangular bone at the base of the spine. It is between the iliums.
What is another way to describe the coccyx? The tailbone.
Where is the ilium? The broad, upper portion of either hipbone.
What holds the sacrum and the ilium together? The sacroiliac joint.
What do the words coxal and coxae deal with? The hip bone.
What is the pelvis? The lower part of the trunk, between the abdomen and the legs. It includes the ilium and sacrum. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_pelvis
What is the ischium? The lower, ring shaped portion of the pelvis. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ischium
What does the term acetabulum mean? The acetabulum is a concave surface of the pelvis. The head of the femur meets with the pelvis at the acetabulum, forming the hip joint.
What is a transverse process? The projections of bone on either side of the vertebra in the back. http://www.neurosurgery.ufl.edu/patients/images/vertsup.gif
What is a spinous process? The projection of bone that points outward from the vertebra in the back. http://www.neurosurgery.ufl.edu/patients/images/vertsup.gif
What does IVF stand for? intervertebral foramina.
What does the IVF (Intervertebral foramina) do and where is it located? The IVF is an opening in the vertebra that allows spinal nerves to pass through so they can reach other parts of the body. It is located in the vertebra.
What is the intervertebral disc (or IV disc)? The disc of cartilage that sits between the vertebra of the back.
What are sternocostal joints? The cartilages that connect the true ribs to the sternum.
What are the costovertebral joints? The cartilages that connect the ribs to the vertebra.
How many pairs of true ribs are there? 7 They are ribs 1 through 7. They are "true" ribs because they attach to the sternum.
How many pairs of false ribs are there? 4 They are ribs 8 through 12. They are "false" because they do not attach to the sternum directly. Floating ribs are also considered false ribs.
How many floating ribs are there? 2 They are ribs 11 through 12. They are "floating" ribs because they only attach to the back.
How many parts are there in the sternum? 3
Name the 3 parts of the sternum. Manubrium, body, xiphoid. (In order, from top to bottom)
What's another word for the clavicle? Collar bone.
What is another word for the scapula? Shoulder blade.
What does AC joint stand for? acromioclavicular joint
How many types of cartilage are there? 3
What are the three kinds of cartilage? Hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage.
True or false: cartilage contains nerve cells and needs a good blood supply to remain healthy? False. Cartilage has no nerves and doesn't need blood.
Which is the most abundant type of cartilage? Hyaline.
Hyaline cartilage contains spherical ___ with only collagen in their matrices? chondrocytes
What are the 4 types of hyaline cartilage? (ACRN) Articular cartilages, costal cartilages, respiratory cartilages, nasal cartilages. (ACRN, as in "Acrin.")
Where can articular hyaline cartilage be found in the human body? End of most bones that connect with movable joints.
Where can costal hyaline cartilage be found in the human body? They connect your ribs to your sternum. (Remember that costal means ribs.)
Where can respiratory hyaline cartilage be found in the human body? The larynx, the trachea, and other respiratory areas.
Where can nasal hyaline cartilage be found in the human body? The tip of the nose.
Where can elastic cartilage be found in the human body? External ear and the epiglottis.
Where can fibrocartilage be found in the human body? Meniscus in the knee, the pubic symphysis, and intervertebral discs in your spine.
Which kind of cartilage resembles hyaline but isn't hyaline? Elastic.
How many groups of bones are there? 2
What are the 2 groups of bones called? Axial skeleton, the appendicular skeleton
What area of the body can the axial skeletal bones be found? The long axis of the body.
What are some examples of axial skeletal bones? The skull, the vertebral column, the rib cage, etc.
What are some examples of bones in the appendicular skeleton? Appendicular skeletal bones are in the limbs. Including the shoulder girdle (clavicle and scapula) and pelvic girdle.
Name the 4 TYPES of bones. (Not the same as the groups of bones mentioned earlier.) Long bones, short bones (including sesamoid bones) flat bones, irregular bones.
What are the long bones? Bones that are longer than they are wide. Including the femur, the fingers, the clavicle, etc.
What are the short bones? They are roughly cube shape bones that include the wrist and ankle bones.
What are sesamoid bones? Short bones that form in a tendon, like the patella (knee cap).
What are flat bones? Flat bones. They include the sternum, the scapula, ribs, and bones of the skull.
What are irregular bones? Bones with complicated shapes that fit in none of the other categories. These include the vertebra and hip bones.
How many basic functions do bones serve in the body? 7
Name the 7 functions of bones in the body. Support, protection, movement, mineral storage, blood cell formation, fat storage, hormone production.
How many layers do bones have? 2
What are the 2 bone layers? External or compact, and internal or spongy.
What do you call the interior surfaces of bone? Endosteum.
What do you call the exterior surfaces of bone? Periosteum.
How many types of cells are there in bones? 3
What are the 3 types of cells in bones? osteogenic, bone lining, osteoclasts
How many kinds of osteogenic cells are there in bones? 3
What are the osteogenic cells in bones called? osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts
What do osteogenic bone cells do? They create more bones. They are actually stem cells.
What are osteoblasts? Cells that form new bone cell matrices. They are osteogenic.
What are osteocytes? Mature or fully formed bone cells. They maintain the structure or matrix of the bones and regulate the constant deconstruction and reconstruction of bones.
What are osteoclasts? Cells responsible for bone resorption. They break down bones.
What are bone lining cells? They essentially inactive osteoblasts that are not involved in bone remodeling. They cover all of the available bone surface and function as a barrier for certain ions.
Bone cells are __. Organic.
Mineral, calcium, magnesium, and other bone components are __. Inorganic.
What is Wolff's Law? Bone grows or remodels in response to stress.
What is osteomalacia? Softening of bones. Causes pain when bearing weight. It is often seen as the adult form of rickets, but milder.
What is rickets? Softening of bones in children due to vitamin D deficiency. It is basically osteomalacia in children.
What is osteoporosis? Weakening of bones due to reabsorption outpacing bone reconstruction. Hips are very susceptible to this. Being petit increases the odds of getting osteoporosis.
In what decade of life does bone density begin to diminish? 4 (40+ years of age)
What is the nucleus pulposis? The jelly-like substance in the middle of the spinal disc.
What is the anulus fibrosis? The outer half of the spinal disc that rings the nucleus pulposis.
What is subluxation? An incomplete dislocation.
Where is the vertebral prominence? A protrusion on vertebra C7 or T1 where the back meets the neck.
What is the sternocostal joint made from? costal cartilage.
The sacroiliac joint is held together by __, not muscles. ligaments
Can IVDs slip? No. Intervertebral discs can bulge, but they do not slip.
What is the glenoid cavity? The shoulder joint.
T or F: The rotor cup is part of the shoulder joint. False. It's called a rotator cuff.
What is the top of the sternum called? Manubrium
What is the 2nd part (from top to bottom) of the sternum called? Body
What is the bottom (third from top) part of the sternum called? Xiphoid process
What is most important when classifying types of bone? (Such as long bone or short bones.) Their shape. Size does not matter.
What is an osteon? Structural unit of compact bone. They are elongated cylinders oriented parallel to the long axis of the bone. (Think of them as tiny weight bearing pillars.)
What makes up spongy bones? trabeculae.
What makes up compact bones? osteons.
What is the difference between trabeculae (spongy bones) and osteons (compact bones)? Trabeculae are less consistent than osteons. Trabeculae are a honeycomb of small flat pieces of bone.
What is the Haversian canals canal? Small vertical canals in the bone containing small blood vessels and nerves that serve the osteons.
What is the Volkmans canal? (Also called the peripheral canal.) A canal that runs through bones the contains larger blood vessels and nerves. They go sideways through the bones at right angles to connect the periosteum to the medullary cavity.
What are lacunae? Little spaces in the bone that house the osteocytes. (They are reminiscent of lagoons.)
What are lamellae? Hollow tubes of bone matrix that look like growth rings in a tree. They have collagen fibers that run in all directions to allow the bone to withstand torsion (or twisting) forces.
What is the canaliculi? The canal network that allows osteocytes to communicate. They connect one lacunae to the next.
What is the medullary cavity? A canal in the bone that contains the largest blood vessels and nerves.
What is another word for articulate when referring to the skeleton? Connect
Intervertebral discs are made from __% water. 70 percent
What is the cervical lordosis? Cervical lordosis is a curve in the cervical spine, the area of the spine which contains the neck vertebrae. This curve is entirely normal and in fact desirable because it helps to stabilize the head and spine.
What is the thoracic kyphosis? Kyphosis refers to a natural curvature of the portion of the spine called the thoracic spine.
What is the lumbar lordosis? Lordosis is the inward curvature of a portion of the lumbar and cervical vertebral column.[
The cervical curvature of a baby's spine is present from birth, but becomes pronounced at __ months of age when it starts to lift its head. 3 months
What is scoliosis? When a person's spine is curved from side to side.
Created by: IsaacJ