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Genetics Chapter 1

Chapter 1

Mitosis Chromosomes are copied and distributed so that each daughter cell receives a diploid set of chromosomes, diploid. 2n. Leads to the production of two cells, each with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
Meiosis Associated with gamete formation, 1n. Cells receive only one chromosome from each chromosome pair, which is called haploid. Reduces the genetic content and the number of chromosomes by precisely half.
Diploid number 2n is the number of chromosomes in most cells. Chromosomes in diploid cells exist as pairs, called homologous chromosomes.
Chromosome theory of inheritance Inherited traits are controlled by genes residing on chromosomes.
Allele Alternative forms of a gene. Different alleles may produce differences in observable features, phenotypes. The set of alleles for a given trait carried by an organism is called a genotype.
Homologous chromosomes Chromosomes that pair during meiosis and that are identical with respect to their genetic loci and centromere placement. One comes from the maternal parent and the other is from the parental parent.
Sister chromatids The name of each chromatid in one of the homologous chromosomes. The DNA contained in each of them is genetically identical.
Independent assortment The random distribution of maternal and paternal homologs into gametes. All combinations of gametes should be formed in equal frequency.
Created by: 1077077833