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Babbie Ch 8 Vocab

QuestionAnswer
Experiment a study that involves taking action and observing the consequences of that action
Pretesting the measurement of a dependent variable among subjects
Posttesting the measurement of a dependent variable among subjects after they’ve been exposed to an independent variable
Experimental Group in experimentation, a group of subjects to whom an experimental stimulus is administered.
Control Group in experimentation, a group of subjects to whom no experimental stimulus is administered and who should resemble the experimental group in all other respects. The comparison of the 2 groups @ the end of the experiment= effect of experimental stimulus.
Hawthorne Effect subjects respond to the attention of treatment rather than the stimulus itself
Double-blind Experiment an experimental design in which neither the subjects nor the experimenters know which is the experimental group and which is the control group
Randomization A technique for assigning experimental subjects to experimental and control groups randomly
Matching in connection with experiments, the procedure whereby pairs of subjects are matched on the basis of their similarities on one or more variables, and one member of the pair is assigned to the experimental group and the other to the control group
One-shot case study the researcher measures a single group of subjects on a dependent variable folliwng the administration of some experimental stimulus. This is a “pre-experimental” design that does not meet the scientific standards of experimental designs.
One-group pretest-posttest design the experimental group has a pretest, but the design lacks a control group. This is a “pre-experimental” design that does not meet the scientific standards of experimental designs.
Static-Group comparison a design based on experimental and control groups but has no pretests, and is not generally randomized. This is a “pre-experimental” design that does not meet the scientific standards of experimental designs.
Internal Invalidity Refers to the possibility that the conclusions drawn from experimental results may not accurately reflect what went on in the experiment itself.
History A type of internal invalidity where during the course of the experiment, historical events may occur that will confound the experimental results
Maturation A type of internal invalidity where the subjects change through the course of the study (e.g. by aging, in the long term, or by getting bored, in the short term).
Testing A type of internal invalidity where the test itself influences behavior (e.g. become more sensitive/aware of what is being studied; subjects may change their answers to look “better” to the researcher)
Instrumentation A type of internal invalidity where if there are differences in the pretest and the posttests, they may be hard to compare and reach conclusive results about the effect of the stimulus.
Statistical Regression A type of internal invalidity where the extremity of subjects selected results in changes that may not be due to the stimulus (e.g. selecting subjects who can’t possibly get any worse at math).
Selection Biases A type of internal invalidity where groups are not comparable at the beginning of the experiment.
Experimental Validity A type of internal invalidity where subjects drop out of the experiment and may influence the results of the study.
Causal Time Order A type of internal invalidity where there is ambiguity about the time order of the experimental stimulus and the dependent variable—where it is unclear which leads to a change in which.
Diffusion or imitation of treatments A type of internal invalidity where experimental and control group subjects can communicate with one another, and experimental subjects may pass on some elements of the experimental stimulus in order to “contaminate” the control group
Compensation A type of internal invalidity where there are pressures to offer subjects in a control group (who are typically deprived of something of value) some form of compensation.
Compensatory Rivalry A type of internal invalidity where the subjects deprived of the experimental stimulus may try to compensate for the missing stimulus by working harder.
Demoralization A type of internal invalidity where feelings of deprivation within the control group may result in their giving up.
External Invalidity refers to the possibility that conclusions drawn from the experimental results may not be generalizable to the “real” world.
Solomon four-group design an experimental design that involves four groups of subjects: two sets of control groups and two sets of experimental groups, in which one set of experimental and control groups are given pretests and posttests, and the other set is only given posttests.
Posttest-only control group design an experimental design that incorporates a control group and experimental group with a posttest only. Unlike static-group comparison, the control group and the experimental group had randomly assigned subjects, ensuring they are roughly = w/o a posttest
Pygmalion effect the tendency to see in others what we’ve been led to expect.
Field experiments experiments that occur out in the “real world”
Web-based experiments experiments conducted online via the Internet
“Natural” experiments experiments that occur in the course of normal social events, outside controlled settings.
Created by: adis