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BIO 02

Mutation Allel Frequency due to Mutation; Always change new genes; can convert one allel to another
Conditions that change allele frequency Nonrandom mating; migration; genetic drift; mutation; natural selection
Variation in population inharited due to envrionment; only genetic compant passed to offspring; mutation and sexual recomination lands in variation
Molecular biology DNA codes bacteria; RNA is made of DNA
Comparative embrology Comparison of the anatomy of structures during early development of early species
Homology Vestigal organs or structures that serve no purpose
Biogeography Geographical distribution of species
Fossil record Organize sequence of fossils as they appear in rock; passing of time; reveals appearance in organism tin historical sequence
evidence of evolution Fossil record; biogeography; Comparitive embryology
evolution led over 1.5 million; biological evolution = population of organisms across generations
natural selection some individual have traits that leave more surviving offspring; alters genectic makeup of populaiton through time; evolution etheory is foundation of modern biology
Darwin made observations of finches (all produce an excess number of offspring but some numbers of population survivs
Alcoholic femintation yeast generates alcohol and CO2
Lactic acid is in animal cells
ATP from femintation no new ATP is made during fermination; organisms that use fermination only gain 2 ATP from glycolosis
What happens in Fermentation Pryuvate is broken down to produce alcholol by releasing CO2; produces one of several acids
Cell Respiration During Day photosynthisis is faster then resperation which increases in glucose and O2 production; at night no photosynthesis; no glucose or O2 produced
H+ Gradient tied to production of ATP; combines with ATP made in other steps to get 36-40 ATP per molecule of glucose
Citric Acid Cycle starts with 4 Carbon molecules; Makes 2 ATP
Transition reaction Connect glycolysis to cell respiration; pyruvate converted to coenzyme; 2 carbon dioxide released; electrons move from pryuvate to NADA
Pyruvate Pivital metobolite; if 02 is present enters mitochondria; if O2 is not present it stays in cytoplasm and undergoes fementation
Glycolysis takes place in cytoplasm; breaking glycose into 2 pyruvate molecules
Enzymes 2 needed for cell respiration are NAD and FAD; both are electron carriers
Cellular respiration Glucose + 6CO2 --> 6H2O + 6CO2 + ATP
Migration Individuals move and migrate from one population to another; genectic effects seen in humans
Prokaryotes numbers out eukaryote; thrive in area where too hot, cold, salty, acidic, alkanic for Eurkayote
Genetic drift Change in allele freqency when small group seperates from large group; mate amoung themselves; change is random; more pronounced
Non random mating individuals of one genotype reproduce more often with eachother than others
Protozoa live by ingesting food like animals. They thrive in aquatic areas
Slime molds like fungi feed on dead animals. find in soil, lawn, forest
Unicellular fungi photosynthetic; exist in freshwater
Seaweeds Multicellular; need saltwater, H2O, light, and a place to attach
Vasular plants have system to transport; widely successful on land; two types of transport: Xylem (carry water) and Phylum (food)
Seedless plants Ferns most common; horsetails / club mosses; reproductive by windblown ferns
Seed Vascular plants Gymosperms; angiosperm; seed-protective coat protects embrio and stored food
Gymnosperms Uncovered naked seeds often on cones
Conifers largest group of gymnosperms; cone bearing pine, spruce, fir, redwood; needle shape; well adapted to hot summers, cool winters, high winds, heavy snows
Angiosperm flowering plant, seed covered by fruit, food, clothing, and medicine
types of a flower Sac and tube-within-tube
types of symmetry asymmetrical; radial; bilateral
phylum platyhelminthes flat worms; planaria; tapeworms (parasites)
Phylum Cnideara Examples: Jellyfish, corals, freshwater hydra
Phylum Nematoda Examples: Round worm; non-segmented; located in sea, soil, and freshwater. Pinworms are common in US
Classification of animals Organization, body plan, symatry; segmentation, coelom
Phylum Mollusca they have three distinct body parts: Vasuceral Mass, foot, and mantic. Gastropods, cephalopods, and bivalves are examples of these
gastropods snails and conch are examples. they have a stomach foot
cephalopods octopus, and squid are examples. they have a head foot.
Bivalves Clams, oysters, and scallops are these
Phylum annelida these are segmented, mostly marine, earthworms (a type of these) are found in soil, and leeches (in freshwater)
Phylum arthopoda Insects are these. exoskeletons exist in these, 3 types are crytaceans, insects, aracnids
Crustaceans mostly marine; shrimp and lobster are these, freshwater crayfish
Insects numorous; 3 body parts (head, thorax, and amdomen)
Phylum echlnodermata Spiny endoskeleton
Created by: jolian