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Cell Overview

basic unit of all forms of life cell
no nucleus, no membrane-bound organelles small and simple prokaryotic cell
has a nucleus, large and complex eukaryotic cell
structures within a cell that have specific functions organelles
regulates what enters and leaves the cell, made of a phospholipid bilayer cell membrane or plasma membrane
contains nearly all of the cell's DNA Nucleus
Site of protein synthesis Ribosomes
pack proteins Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
make lipids Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
modify, sort and package proteins Golgi apparatus
breakdown lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins lysosomes
convert chemical energy into usable energy for cells- site of cellular respiration mitochondria
maintain cell shape microtubules
stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates vacuole
captures energy from sunlight and converts to chemical energy, site of photosynthesis chloroplasts
entire region of the cell between the nucleus and the plasma membrane cytoplasm
protects the plant cell and maintains its shape cell wall
movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration diffusion
requires no energy from the cell to transport materials from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration passive transport
requires energy from cell to transport materials from low concentration to high concentration active transport
passive transport of water across membrane from an area of high concentration to low concentration osmosis
use of proteins to help carry molecules along facilitated diffusion
active transport into a cell endocytosis
active transport out of a cell exocytosis
tail used for locomotion (movement) flagella
short hair-like extensions used for movement cilia
structure used to detect sunlight eyespots
temporary projection of cytoplasm used to engulf food pseudopods
undifferentiated cells, cells that can become any type of cell stem cells
cells that are different because they have different functions/jobs (ex: nerve, muscle, skin, etc.) specialized cells or differentiated cells
cells that do not have a specific job (ex: stem cells) unspecialized cells or undifferentiated cells
movement based on the response to chemicals in the environment chemotaxis
movement based on the response to light phototaxis
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment homeostasis
an organism made of many cells multicellular organism
an organism made of one cell unicellular organism
the standard arrangement of bases in nucleic acids (A-T, C-G) complimentary bases
copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA DNA replication
Created by: jessicagiorgione