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Nutrition test 2

Chapter 2,3,4

QuestionAnswer
Plants do what during photosynthesis convert solar energy to carbs
What does C,H,O stand for Carbs,Hydrogen,Oxygen
Is wheat bread good or bad for you? And what is it? good, insoluble fiber
What ethnic group suffer from the highest degree of lactose intolerance Native Americans
What is the primary fuel source? carbs
carbs are plentiful in the food supply and are an important contribution to a well balanced diet
Our body needs __ to survive energy
what 2 actions require energy voluntary and involuntary
the energy derived from calories are supplied by food
what 3 things must a successful energy system have to do? 1- change basic fuel to refined fuel (glucose) 2- carry fuel to places that need it 3- burn refined fuel
what food is quick energy? carbs
what reasons exist for large quantities of carbs 1- widely available and easily grown 2- relatively low in cost 3-easily stored
how much Kcal in the American diet comes from carbs half
what are Monosaccharides single sugars, simple carbs
what are class members of Monosaccharides glucose (dextrose) fructose galactose
what are sources of Monosaccharides corn syrup (processed foods) fruits honey lactose (milk)
what are disaccharides double sugars, simple carbs
what are class members of disaccharides sucrose, lactose, maltose
what are sources of disaccharides table sugar (sugar cane, sugar beets) milk molasses starch digestion, intermediate sweetener in food products starch digestion, final
what are polysaccharides multiple sugars, complex carbs
what class members are polysaccharides starch glycogen
what are sources of polysaccharides grains and grain products (cereal, bread, crackers, backed goods) rice, corn, bulgur legumes potatoes and other vegetables storage form of carbs in animal tissue (not a dietary source)
how are carbs classified according to number of sugar, saccharide
How many single sugars are there 3
the 3 single sugars in nutrition are glucose, fructose, and galactose
Monosaccharides are the __ __ for all carbs building blocks
where are the carbs quickly absorbed from the intestine
next, the carbs go from the intestine to the blood stream
once the carbs QUICKLY are absorbed from the intestine into the blood stream, they are carried to the liver
Once the carbs reach the liver, they are stored as __ for a constant backup energy supply or used for immediate energy needs glycogen
the BASIC SINGLE sugar in the body metabolism is glucose
glucose, the form of sugar circulating in the blood and is the __ fuel for __ primary cells
glucose is also called dextrose
Where is fructose mainly found fruits
what is manufactured by changing the glucose in cornstarch to fructose high- fructose corn syrup
what is increasingly being used in processed food, canned and frozen fruits, and soft drinks high- fructose corn syrup
what is an inexpensive sweetener and a major source of increased sugar intake in the US high- fructose corn syrup
what mainly comes from the digestion of milk sugar, or lactose galactose
_ are SIMPLE DOUBLE sugars composed of 2 single-sugar units liked together disaccharides
the 3 disaccharides are important to nutrition sucrose, lactose, and maltose
Glucose + Fructose= sucrose
Glucose + Galactose = lactose
glucose + glucose = maltose
common table sugar sucrose
sugar in milk lactose
lactose aids in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus
what is derived in the body from breakdown of starch maltose
polysaccharides are _ carbs complex
the important polysaccharides in nutrition are starch, glycogen, and dietary fiber
what is the most significant polysaccharide starch
starches are in grains, legumes, and other vegetables. some fruits in small amounts
what are more complex in structure than simple sugars, thus breaking down slower and supplying energy over longer period starches
what is the most important dietary carb worldwide starch
the DRIs recommend that __ to __ % of total Kcal consumed come from carbs 45-65
what are major food sources of starch grains in the form of cereal, pasta, crackers, bread, baked goods, beans, peas, potatoes, rice, and corn.
where is glycogen found animal muscle tissue
animal starch is another name for glycogen
is glycogen a significant source of carbs in the diet NO
glycogen is a carb formed within __ and is crucial to the body's __ and __ __ body's tissues metabolism and energy balance
where is glycogen found liver and muscles
glycogen is constantly broken down to form __ for __ energy needs glucose immediate
what help sustain normal blood glucose during short-term fasting periods (sleep) and immediate duel for muscle action glycogen
does dietary fiber have a direct energy value like other carbs NO
why does dietary fiber not have a direct energy value like other carbs humans lack the necessary enzymes to digest it
increasing attention has focused on the relation of fiber to health promotion and disease prevention, especially to __, __, and __ GI- gastrointestinal cardiovascular disease management of diabetes
cellulose if the __ part of the framework of __ chief plants
cellulose remains __ in the __ and provides important __ to the diet. undigested Gi tract bulk
what helps move the food mass along, stimulating normal muscle action in the intestine, and forms feces. bulk in the cellulose
what are the main sources of cellulose stems and leaves of vegetables and covering of seeds and grains
many health organizations have recommended increasing intake of complex carbs and dietary fiber
recommended daily fiber intake for men 50 and younger is 38 g/day
recommended daily fiber intake for women 50 and younger is 25 g/day
can you have too much fiber YES
sudden increases in fiber intake can result in gas, bloating, and constipation
how should fiber be increased? gradually
what should you take increase with fiber water
the average intake in american diets remains at ____ the recommendations less than half
what health benefits (6 things) are scientists confident of with consuming adequate amounts of fiber 1- lower bld cholesterol levels 2- promotes normal bowel function & movements/ prevents constipation 3- aids in obesity prevention 4- protects against colon cancer 5- slows glucose absorption, reducing spikes & insulin secretion 6- prevents diverticu
how can health professionals assist the public in evaluating their fiber intake by educating and encourage the use of food labels
what is the main function of carbs provide fuel
what provides readily available energy needed for physical activities as well as the work of the body cells carbs
__ is a fuel, but body only needs small amount of it fat
why does the body mainly need fat to supply the essential fatty acids
carbs also serve as special functions in many body tissues and organs
glycogen reserves in teh __ and __ provide a constant exchange with the body's overall liver and muscle energy balance system
what helps regulate both protein and fat metabolism carbs
if _ is sufficient to meet general body needs, __ does not have to be broken down to supply energy carbs proteins
__ action of carbs protect protein, allowing it to be used for its MAJOR ROLE in TISSUE GROWTH AND MAINTENANCE protein-sparing
what is protein-sparing's major role tissue growth and maintenance
__ is a product of incomplete fat oxidation in the cells keytones
keytones are __ acids strong
the condition of acidosis, or keytones, upsets what balance of the body and can become serious normal acid-base
keytones protective action of carbs is called antiketogenic effect
__ are the preferred fuel for the hear muscle, fatty acids
__ is a vital emergency fuel glycogen
in a damaged heart, low glycogen stores or inadequate carbs may cause Sx of __ and __ cardiac disorder angina
constant carb intake and reserves are necessary for proper functioning of the CNS
the master center of the CNS, __ has __ stored supply of __ brain NO glucose
sustained and profound shock from low blood sugar may cause __ and result in brain damage coma and/or death
where does the digestion of carb foods, starches, and sugar begin mouth
what is mastication chewing of food
what does mastication do breaks food into fine particles and mixes with saliva
during mastication, the salivary enzyme (salivary amylase) is secreted by the parotid glands
where are the parotid glands under each ear at the back of the jaw
what do wavelike contractions of the muscle fibers of the stomach do continue the MECHANICAL digestive process
wavelike contractions, called peristalsis further mixes food particles with __ to facilitate __ digestion gastric secretions chemical
what does hydrochloric acid in the stomach do stops the action of salivary amylase in food mass
what continues to mix the food mass and move it to the lower part of the stomach muscle action
after the food gets to the lower part of the stomach, the food mass is a thick creamy __, and its ready for it CONTROLLED emptying through the __ __ into the __ chyme pyloric valve duodenum
what is the first portion of the small intestine called duodenum
what is HCL hydrochloric acid
__ continues to aid digestion in the small intestine by peristalsis mixing and moving the chyme along the length of the tube
where is the chemical digestion of carbs COMPLETED __________ from both the small intestine by specific enzymes pancreas and intestine
secretions from the pancreas enter the duodenum through the common bile duct
secretions from the pancreas that enter the duodenum contain the starch enzyme __ for continued breakdown of pancreatic amylase starch to disaccharides and monosaccharides.
what 3 disaccharidases does enzymes from the brush border of the intestinal tract contain sucrase lactase maltase
sucrase, lactase, maltase act on their respective disaccharides to render the monosaccharides _____ ___ __ ready for absorption directly into the __ blood circulation glucose, galactose, fructose portal
_ the inability to break lactose down into its monosaccharide units (glucose and galactose) results from a lack of the enzyme _ lactose intolerance lactase
Sx of lactose intolerance is bloating, gas, abdominal pain, and diarrhea
lactose intolerance affects approx. _ adults worldwide (higher in some countries and ethnic groups) 75%
what is it when lactase is absent or deficient from the brush border cells of the small intestine hypolactasia
what happens if the disaccharide lactose can not be hydrolyzed to its respective monosaccharides the unabsorbed sugar ATTRACTS excess fluid into the gut
what are the dietary guidelines for americans general guide lines for promote health
what 3 things do the guidelines advise individuals to do 1- choose fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, and whole grain often 2- choose and prep food/beverages with little added sugars or caloric sweeteners 3-reduce dental caries- good hygiene& consuming sugar-starch foods/drinks less often
where can you find: 1- tips for consuming more whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. 2- serving size info 3- health benefits and nutrients associated with each food group 4- sample menus mypyramid
end of chapter 2- CARBS next is chapter 3- FATS
Created by: KP1031