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Psychology Ch.4

perception in which the way we perceive a stimulus doesn't match its physical reality illusion
detection of physical energy by sense organs, which then send information to the brain sensation
the brain's interpretation of raw sensory inputs perception
the first step in sensation; converting external energies or substances into a "language" the nervous system understands, such as electrical signals within neurons transduction
specialized cell responsible for converting external stimuli into neural activity for a specific sensory system sense receptor
for all senses, activation is greatest when we first detect a stimulus, after which our response declines in strength sensory adaptation
study of how we perceive sensory stimuli based on their physical characteristics psychophysics
the lowest level of a stimulus that we can detect on 50 percent of the trials when no other stimuli of that type are present absolute threshold
the smallest change in the intensity of a stimulus that we can detect JND just noticeable difference
there is a constant proportional relationship between the JND and the original stimulus intensity. (stronger the stimulus, the bigger change needed for it to be noticed) Weber's law
describes how we detect stimuli under uncertain conditions signal detection theory
tendencies to make one type of guess over another when we're in doubt about whether a weak signal is present or absent under noisy conditions response biases
the sensation we experience is determined by the nature of the sense receptor, not the stimulus specific nerve energies
vivid sensations of light caused by pressure on your eye's receptor cells phosphenes
rare condition in which people experience cross-modal sensations synesthesia
the ability to attend to many sense modalities simultaneously (bottom up and top down) parallel processing
set formed when expectations influence perceptions perceptual set
the process by which we perceive stimuli consistently across varied conditions (3 kinds, shape, size, color) perceptual constancy
allows us to select one sensory channel and turn off the others selective attention
views attention as a bottleneck through which info passes filter theory of attention
ability to pick out an important message cocktail party effect
failure to detect stimuli that are in plain sight when our attention is focused elsewhere inattentional blindness
failure to detect obvious changes in one's environment change blindness
problem describing how our brains connect info together to perceive a whole binding problem
colored part of the eye - controls how much light enters the eye iris
circular hole through which light enters the eye pupil
curved, transparent layer covering the iris and pupil - bends light to focus incoming visual image at back of the eye cornea
bends light, but changes curvature to fine tune the image; accomodation, allows you to judge distances lens
thin membrane at the back of the eye. "movie screen" retina
central part of retina which is responsible for acuity (sharpness); if it is damaged we can't see straight on fovea
long and narrow cells in the fovea that allow us to see in the dark rods
give us color vision cones
the time it takes rods to gain their maximum sensitivity to light dark adaptation
nerve that travels from the retina to the brain optic nerve
place where the optic nerve connects to the retina blind spot
our ability to use certain minimal patterns to identify objects using feature detection cells to see lines and edges feature detection
Gestalt principles proximity, similarity, continuity, closure, symmetry, figure-ground
Gestalt: objects physically close to each other tend to be perceived as unified wholes proximity
Gestalt: we see similar objects as comprising a whole, much more so than dissimilar objects similarity
Gestalt: we still perceive objects as wholes, even if other objects block part of them continuity
Gestalt: when partial visual info is present, our brains fill in what's missing closure
Gestalt: we perceive objects that are symmetrically arranged as whole more often than those that aren't symmetry
Gestalt: we usually focus our attention on what we believe to be the central figure, and ignore the background figure-ground
an image we can perceive two ways bistable image
the ability to see spatial relations in 3 dimensions depth perception
depth cue that relies on one eye alone monocular depth cues (relative size, texture gradient, interposition, light and shadow)
depth cue that relies on two eyes binocular depth cues (disparity, convergence)
our sense of hearing audition
corresponds to the frequency of a wave (hertz) pitch
the amplitude (height) of the sound wave (decibels) loudness
the quality/complexity o the sound timbre
funnels sound waves onto the eardrum; comprised of pinna outer ear
transmits sound from eardrum to inner ear; comprised of ossicles - hammer, anvil, stirrup middle ear
sound is converted from vibrations to neural activity innner ear
spiral shaped organ in ear; filled with a thick fluid - balance cochlea
tissue containing the hair cells necessary for hearing organ of Corti
membrane supporting the organ of Corti and hair cells in cochlea basilar membrane
specific place along the basilar membrane matches a tone with a specific pitch place theory
airborne chemicals that interact with receptors in the lining of our nasal passages odors
tastes we can detect: sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami
sense receptor in the tongue that responds to tastes taste buds
odorless chemicals that serve as social signals of members of one's species that alter our sexual behavior pheromones
system we use for touch and pain somatosensory
Created by: rlhaas
Popular Psychology sets




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