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ENVS test 1

words for test

Mutualism a relationship between two species which benefits both of them ex. Pollinators, clownfish and sea anemones
Symbiosis when two mutualistic species have become so dependent to one another that they cannot live alone Ex. Lichens (fungus &algae), stomach bacteria and mammals
Parasitism when two species live together, with one benefiting and one being harmed Ex. Leech, flea, tics, lice
Commensalism when two species live together and only one benefits, but the other isn’t harmed Ex. Epiphytes, orb weaver spiders
Food web more than one chain, where animals eat more than one thing
Aquatic life zones (not technically considered biomes) freshwater lakes and ponds, streams and rivers, wetlands, estuaries, and oceans (coastal and open)
Climate average temperature and precipitation expected throughout the year
Weather what is actually happening outside at a given point of time
What lead to biological communities? abiotic factors
Ecological succession transition to a biological community and from one biological community to another
Primary succession begins where there is no life, lichens first arrive that don’t need soil, then pioneer species move in, soil thickens, then grasses, wildflowers, and other plants begin to take over
Secondary succession begins in a place that already has soil, such as after fire, wind, animals, flooding, diseases, starts with weeds, then pine trees, then oaks and maples
What follows plants in succession animals and insects
Temperate deciduous forest North America, Europe, Asia, moderate temperature, moderate precipitation, 30-60 in/yr, challenge to survive two distinctly different seasons, trees lose leaves to store energy for the winter
Tropical rainforest South America, Asia, Africa, hot temperature, high precipitation 100-400 in/yr, no season, really diverse, challenge is little sunlight through tree cover
Coniferous/Evergreen/Boreal Forest Canada, Russia, Northern Europe, Cold temperature, mod-low precipitation, 12-33 in/yr, seasons-spring, fall winter, pine trees, don’t lose their leaves
Savannah Africa, South America, hot temperature, wet season and dry season, mod-low precipitation, 10-30 in/yr, challenge is surviving the dry season, few trees, fur adaptations
Prairie grassland Midwest USA, Russia, southern South America, moderate/cool temperatures, low precipitation 10-30 in/yr, few trees, challenge is climate change and fire, prairie dogs & rodents & herd animals
Tundra near north pole, Canada, Alaska, Scandinavia, cold temperature, low precipitation, <10 in., challenges lack of direct sunlight, less competition, wolves, snow rabbits, polar bears, arctic foxes, birds, reindeer, grasses and bushes, permafrost, thick fur
Deserts Africa, Asia, North America, Australia, high temperatures, low precipitation <10 in., challenge is little water and shelter, fewer predators, camels, shrubs, cacti, lizards, snakes, seeds can last for years
6 most important elements CHONPS, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur
organic molecules carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
law of conservation of matter law is never created nor destroyed, just rearranged
law of conservation of energy/first law of thermodynamics energy is neither created nor destroyed
Kinetic energy energy that is moving, Ex. X-rays, heat, sun’s energy
Potential energy energy that is stored, Ex. Energy stored in molecules (chemical energy), rubber bands
What is essential for every reaction? water
Photosynthesis Carbon+water+sun=sugars+oxygen+water
Respiration opposite of photosynthesis, breaking down sugars to release energy
4 important cycles sulfur, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus
Carbon carbon dioxide in the atmosphereenters the living sphere and it is transformed from inorganic to organic mattersoil/sediment where it is storedturns into rock or fossil fuelsfossil fuels are dug up and burnedcarbon released into atmosphere
Phosphorus does not go into the air, phosphorus rockserode and release to be used by all living thingsexcreted by living thingsbroken down by decomposersabsorbed by the earth
Phosphorus problems too much phosphorus cause too much algae
Nitrogen cycle nitrogen in the airnitrogen fixation changed by bacteria to organic nitrogenplants suck up the ammonium and nitrateplants consumed and animalsdecompose into the soilbacteria turn organic nitrogen back to N2 through denitrification
Nitrogen legumes have the nodules with the bacteria
Sulfur cycle sulfur is mostly in the ground and coalsulfur is uplifted into the ground watersulfates in the atmospherecomes back to the earth through acid rain
Biological Evolution descent with modification, occurs when there is a change in gene frequency within a population over time
Speciation when a population of one type of organism changes over time, each generation successively different until you have a new species
Charles Darwin first to articulate the idea of evolution and described it as natural selection
Darwin’s proof all populations can increase exponentially but generally don’t, only the best survive to have more offspring
Natural selection individuals with favorable characteristics tend to survive and pass on their characteristics to their offspring
Selective pressures the challenges that make survival hard, predators, climate, etc.
How to deal with selective pressures adapt, migrate then adapt, become extinct
Adaptations coping with climate, obtaining food and water, escaping, attracting the best mates or pollinators
Speciation when one species adapts(changes) so much that is becomes a new species, time is essential
Speciation requires physiological opportunity, geographic opportunity, ecological opportunity
Geographic opportunity geographic isolation is the key to speciation
Physiological opportunity something is born with a “good” trait, i.e. longer neck
Ecological opportunity the ecology is made so that it is better for a certain form of a species
k-strategists Cared-for offspring, parent(s) invest time and energy to help children and so limited number of offspring at one time
r-strategists Produce massive numbers, if all survive, would see large population growth, but since survival is up to chance most don’t survive
j-curve graph result of exponential growth
population crash when food runs out and entire population dies
three possible results after a crash population recovers and repeats the pattern, population may re-grow in a balanced form, population barely survives in a degraded envt w/o recovery
s-curve starts out similar to j-curve, but level out near carrying capacity
predation animals or plants are eaten (or attacked) by other organisms
top-down regulation top predators control population
bottom-up population mostly controlled by a limited resource (food)
intraspecies competition within, territoriality, self-thinning of plants, natural selection
interspecies competition outside, plants may compete for light, water, food, animals compete for shelter, water, food, natural selection and adaptation into niches
resource partitioning minimize competition
roles in niches symbiotic partners, generalist species, specialists, keystone species, indicator species
generalist species broad limits of tolerance, can live pretty much anywhere, ex. Humans, raccoons, rats
specialists limited tolerance ex. Panda, coral
keystone species species that other species depend on to survive
indicator species indicate how the rest of the species will survive, ex. Birds, fish
introduced species non-native species
naturalized species introduced species that survive
invasive species introduced species that take over ecosystem because there are no predators ex. Mosquitos
environmental science the study of how the world works
biodiversity variability among living organisms and the ecological complexes which they are part
sound science basic understanding of how the world works and how human systems interact with it
sustainability practical goal our interactions are working toward
stewardship actions and programs that manage natural resources and human well-being for the common good
concepts valid explanations of data gathered
junk science info that is presented as valid, but doesn’t conform to the rigors of scientific community
sustainable continued indefinitely without depleting the material or energy to keep it running
sustainable yields such as forestry and fishery, because they reproduce at exponential rates
environmental racism putting waste and hazardous industries in towns and neighborhoods where most residents are non-white
ecology study of all processes influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms and the interactions between living things and their environment
species all members can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
population number of individuals that make up the interbreeding
biota grouping of populations when we study a natural area
salinity saltiness
ecosystem interactive complex of communities and the abiotic environment affecting them in a particular area
ecotone shares species and characteristics of 2 ecosystems
biome large area of the Earth’s surface with the same climate and similar vegetation
biosphere all ecosystems together
optimal range a certain level at which the organisms grow or survive most
range of tolerance the entire span that allows any growth at all
habitat kind of space a species is biologically adapted to live
niche what the animal feeds on, where it feeds, when it feeds, where it finds shelter, how it responds to abiotic factors, where it nests
standing-crop biomass actual biomass of primary producers at any given time
permafrost permanently frozen subsoil
ecological succession transition from one biotic community to another
pioneer species the first to colonize a newly opened area after a fire, flood, volcano, etc.
primary succession if an area lacks plants and soil and the process of initial invasion and progression, ex. After a volcano erupting
secondary succession when an area’s been cleared by fire, humans or floods, and then left, stuff from surrounding ecosystems may reinvade, has pre-existing soil
world view set of assumptions and values one believes to be true about how the world works and one’s place in it
ecological footprint area of productive land and aquatic ecosystems required to produce the resources used and to assimilate wastes produced by a defined population
population growth births plus immigration minus deaths plus emigration
carrying capacity max. population of a species that a given habitat can support without being degraded over the long term
interspecific competition competition between different species
intraspecific competition competition between the same species
amenalism one species is harmed and the other is unaffected (black walnut tree’s chemicals can kill other plants in the area)
instrumental value if its existence or use benefits some other entity
ecotourism place is visited to observe a wild species or unique ecological site
threats to biodiversity HIPPO, habitat destruction, invasive species, pollution, population, overexploitation
aquaculture farming f shellfish, seaweed, and fish
animal damage control/wildlife services responds to requests from livestock owners, farmers, homeowners, and others to remove nuisance animals and birds
Lacey Act (1900) forbid interstate commerce in illegally killed wildlife
Endangered Species Act of 1973 forbid commerce of threatened wildlife anywhere in the world
Northwest Forest Plan worked out in 1994, prohibited logging of trees over 80 yrs old in 7.4 mil. Acres in WA and OR
Red list list of threatened species
CITES (1970s) an international agreement that focuses on the trade in wildlife and wildlife parts
Created by: lfalkens