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Chapter Test

Biology 2

citric acid product of acetyl CoA and oxaloacetic acid
kilocalorie unit of energy
glycolysis first pathway of cellular respiration
aerobic respiration cellular respiration in the presence of oxygen
cell membrane location of electron transport chain in prokaryotes
cytosol location of glycolysis
NAD+ electron acceptor
fermentation glycolysis and anaerobic pathways
In aerobic respiration, glucose molecules are converted into acetyl CoA molecules when they enter glycolysis
Yeast cells produce alcohol and carbon dioxide in the process of alcoholic fermentation
In cellular respiration, glycolysis immediately precedes the Krebs cycle.
In cellular respiration, more energy is transferred in ________ than in any other step. the electron transport chain
________ donate electrons to the electron transport chain. FADH2 and NADH
The breakdown of organic compounds to produce ATP is known as cellular respiration.
Glycolysis begins with glucose and produces pyruvic acid
An important molecule generated by both lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation is NAD+
In the first step of aerobic respiration, pyruvic acid from glycolysis produces CO2,NADH,H,and acetyl CoA
The electron transport chain is driven by two products of the Krebs cycle— NADH and FADH2
What happens to electrons as they are transported along the electron transport chain? They lose energy.
The energy efficiency of cellular respiration is approximately 66 percent
In alcoholic fermentation, ethyl alcohol is produced from pyruvic acid.
The fourth step of glycolysis yields four ATP molecules, but the net yield from glycolysis is only two ATP molecules. Explain this discrepancy. Two ATP molecules are used in step one.
Under what conditions would cells in your body undergo lactic acid fermentation? When muscle cells are involved in strenuous exercise and the body cannot supply them with oxygen rapidly enough to carry out aerobic respiration, lactic acid fermentation will occur.
Glycolysis produces only 2% of the energy that would be produced if an equal quantity of glucose were completely oxidized. What has happened to the remaining energy in the glucose? Much of the energy originally contained in glucose is held in pyruvic acid.
Explain the role of oxaloacetic acid with respect to the cyclical nature of Krebs cycle. Oxaloacetic acid regenerates coenzyme A when it reacts with acetyl CoA to form citric acid in step one of the Krebs cycle. Coenzyme A is needed to begin the Krebs cycle again
What happens to electrons that accumulate at the end of the electron transport chain? The electrons react with oxygen to form water
Where in the mitochondrion do protons accumulate, and what is the source of the protons? the mitochondrial matrix; NADH and FADH2
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