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Virology Basics

Animal Virology Basics

Capsid def the protein shell that surrounds the nucleic acid genome
3 roles of capsids 1:Protect genome, 2: Packages genom, 3:Facilitate interaction with host.
2 roles of nucleic acid: !: Viral genetic info, 2: Can encode for virus-specific macromolecules.
nucleocapsid def when virus has 2 capsids, it is the inner one, closest to the NA
Capsomere def Each repeating unit of the capsid
5 Families of DNA viruses (w/ exemples) Parvo (B19), Adeno (adenovirus), Herpes (HSV, VZV), Pox (smallpox), Papova (papilloma)
6 Families of ssRNA+ viruses (w/ exemples) Picorna (polio), Flavi (yellow fever, west nile), Toga (Rubella), Astro (astrovirus), Calici (norwalk), Corona (coronavirus)
4 Families of ssRNA- viruses (w/ exemples) Paramyxo (measles, RSV) Rhabdo (rabies), Filo (ebola), Borna (bornavirus)
1 family of ssRNA- SEGMENTED (w/ exemple) orthomyxo (influenza type A)
2 families of ssRNA AMBISENSE SEGMENTED (w/ exemples) Bunya (hanta), Arena (lassa fever)
1 family of dsRNA SEGMENTED (w/ exemple) Reo (rota)
2 families of Reverse transcriptase viruses (w/ exemples) Retroviridae (HIV), Hepadnaviridae (HBV)
pros/cons of primary cell culture Pro:Closest to tissue of origin Con: very few generations, expensive, not same cell type since have to get new cells
pros/cons of diploid cell culture pro: comes from a single cell, clonal, 50 generations, diploid Con: have to get new cells after 50 gen, not same as primary cell (undergone mutation),
pros/cons of continuous cell culture Pro: immortal, cheap Con: aneuploid, unknown background
Difference between biological and physical method of virus detection bio: how much live or infectious virus is present in sample (better method but slower and expensive). Physical: how much total virus is present.
if there are X plaque forming units in 0.1mL of a 10^4 dilution whats the titer of the virus stock? 10X in 1mL of 10^4 so X x(10^5)
2 Examples of biological methods of detection Cytopathic effects (rounding, fusion, inclusion bodies, lysis), Plaque Assays
4 Exemples of physical methods of detection particle counts with electron microscopes,hemagglutination assays, Elisa (and RIA) and application of Virus-specific antibody, southern blots, PCR
What is the eclipse period? The period of time between infection by a virus and the appearance of the mature virus within the cell.
What is the latent period? The interval between exposure to an infectious organism or a carcinogen and the clinical appearance of disease
Created by: harrysomerset