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Basic Nursing Exam 3

What provides the foundation for body mechanics? Coordinated efforts of musculoskeletal and nervous systems to maintain balance, posture, and body alignment during lifting, bending, moving, and performing ADLs.
What does correct alignment do? reduces strain on musculoskeletal structures, maintains adequate muscle tone, and contributes to balance
How do you achieve body balance? When you balance relatively low center of gravity over a wide, stable base of support
Posture maintaining optimal body position. It means a position that most favors function, requires least muscular work to maintain, and places least strain on muscles, ligaments, and bones.
Friction effect of rubbing or the resistance that moving body meets from surface on which it moves. Greater with a larger surface area of the object you are moving.
What does coordinated body movement involve? integrated functioning of skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems
Five functions of bones support, protection, movement, mineral storage, and hematopoiesis (blood cell formation)
How do bones support the body? serve as framework and contribute to shape, alignment, and positioning of body parts
How do bones function in body movement? bones with their joints constitute levers for muscle attachment. When muscles contract and shorten, they pull on bones, producing joint movement.
joint an articulation. Connection between bones.
How are joints classified? according to their structure and degree of mobility.
On the basis of connective tissue structures, how are joints classified? as fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial
Fibrous joints consist of ligament or membrane that units two bony surfaces such as the paired bones of tibia and fibula. Are flexible but permit limited movement.
Cartilaginous joint has little movement but is elastic. Allows for bone growth while providing stability, such as joint b/n sternum and second rib
synovial joint freely movable joint. Bony surfaces are covered by cartilage and connected by ligaments with synovial membrane. Example: hip joint.
Ligaments white, shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue that binds joints and connect bones and cartilages. Are elastic and aid joint flexibility and support. Also have protective function in some areas of the body.
Tendons White, glistening, fibrous bands of tissue that usually connect muscle to bone. Are strong, flexible, and inelastic and occur in various lengths and thicknesses.
Cartilage nonvascular, supporting connective tissue with flexibility of firm, plastic material. Its gristlelike nature permits it to sustain weight and serve as shock-absorber pad b/n articulating bones
skeletal muscle facilitate movement and determine body form and contour. They span at least one joint and attach to both articulating bones.
origin of a muscle point of muscle attachment that remains still
insertion of a muscle point of attachment that moves when muscle contracts
Where are muscles concerned with movement located? Near skeletal region where lever system causes movement.
How do muscles help with posture muscles exert pull on bones in opposite direction than the gravity pulls
synergistic muscles contract to accomplish same movement
antigravity muscles involved with joint stabilization
Major voluntary motor area of the brain located in cerebral cortex. It's the precentral gyrus (motor strip).
Majority of motor fibers descend from motor strip and cross where? At level of the medulla
Created by: egb76au