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A & P 20 & 21

A & P chapters 20 & 21

What are the four functions of the digestive system? Ingestion,digestion, absorption,elimination.
What is the name of each organ of the alimentary tube? Alimentary canal consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine
What is the purpose of mechanical digestion and where in the digestive does it take place? movement (motility) of the digestive tract. Mastication (chewing) Deglutition- process of swallowing. 3 stages-(oral stages-mouth to oropharnyx)-pharyngeal stage-(oropharynx to esophagus)-(esophageal stage-esophagus to stomach)
What is the purpose of chemical digestion and where in the digestive does it take place? changes in chemical composition that transform foods during their travel through the digestive tract;changes are a result of hydrolysis.
What is the function of the pharynx? tube through which a food bolus passes when moved from the mouth to the esophagus.
What is the function of the esophagus? collapsible, muscular, mucosa lined tube;extends from the pharnysx to the stomach
What is the function lower esophageal sphicter or cardiac sphincer? controls the opening of the esophagus into the stomach
What is the function of Hydrochloric acid? Where are they secreted? What is the function of Pepsin? where are they secreted? helps to digest protein/stomach helps to digest proteins/secreted in the stomach.
What is the function of Amylase? Where are they secreted? breaks down carbohydrates (starches) into glucose that the body can use/secreted in the mouth (saliva) and with pancreatic juices.
What are the general functions of the small intestines? The primary function of the small intestine is the absorption of nutrients and minerals found in food.
What are the 3 parts of the small intestines. duodenum-uppermost division (10 inches)-jejunum-(8 feet long)-Ileum-12 feet long remember the phrase don't (duodenum) jump (jejunum) in (ileum) to keep them in order
What is the function of the villi in the small intestines? villi-tiny finger like projections on the intestinal mucosa (millions) microvilli-covers the vill together they increase surface area of the intestine for absorption.
How do the liver, gallbladder and pancreas contribute to digestion? Liver-detoxifies, participates in metabolism,secretes bile. Gallbladder- concentrates and stores bile for later use. Pancreas-Beta cells secrete insulin and Alpha cells secrete glucagon, both of which control carb and fat metabolism
What are the parts of the large intestine? cecum, colon (ascending, transverse, descending), rectum
What is the function of the ileocecal valve? permits material to pass from the ileum into the large intestine, but not usually in the reverse direction.
What are the functions of the colon? The main functions of the colon are absorption of water and minerals, and the formation and elimination of feces
What are the functions of the gallbladder? stores and concentrates bile. releases when needed
What are the functions of the pancreas? secretes the digestive enzymes through the duct system (exocrine) beta cells of pancreas secretes insulin and alpha cells secrete glucagon directly into the blood stream. (insulin and glucagon balance)
What are the functions of the liver? detoxifies, participates in metabolism, stores iron and vitamins/ produces important plasma proteins, secretes bile.
What are the functions of the stomach? food reservoir, secretes gastric juices, breaks up food, secretes intrinsic factor, (protector of vitamin B-12) destroyed if not functioning.
What are the functions of the respiratory system? Exchanges and distributes gases, warms/filters/humidifies air we breathe,provides vocal communication and olfaction, and regulates our body.
What system is essential to help carry out the respiratory system functions? cardiovascular system (oxygenated/deoxygenated blood travel)
Breathing process of inhalation and exhalation
Ventilation exchange of air between lungs and the environment (see pg 466)
Respiration the act of breathing (cellular respiration)
What are the the major organs of the Respiratory system? What is the function of each? nose-passageway for air to lungs,filter pharynx-(throat) common pathway for air & food, modifies speech production larynx-voice box trachea-windpipe, passageway for air bronchi-filters, alveoli does gas exhange lungs- gas distributor and gas exchange
Explain the mechanism of breathing including the acts of inhaling and exhaling. inhalation-the thoracic cavity expands and the diaphragm contracts.Air pressure outside is less than pressure inside lungs. In exhalation, the abdominal muscles contract and the thoracic cavity shrinks. Air inside lungs has more pressure than outside air
How are oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanged in the lungs and at the cellular level? systemic tissue gas exchange and cellular respiration (pg 465)
What is the difference between external and internal respiration? external respiration is between outside enviroment and lungs as well as between aleveoli and capillaries. Internal respiration is cellular respiration. Occurs between cells and blood
Name the parts of the brain that has the respiratory centers that control the respirations of teh body. Medulla & Pons
Tidal Volume Volume air exhaled after a normal breath
Vital Capacity sum of inspiratory reserve, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve.
Inspiratory reserve the amount of air that can be forcible inspired over and above a normal inspiration
Expiratory reserve the volume of air an individual can force out of the lungs after releasing tidal air.
Residual volume amount of air that cannot be forcibly exhaled.
Created by: acmkibc