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psychology exam matt

QuestionAnswer
Basic Research To explore and advance general scientific understanding
Applied Research Reasearch specifically conducted to solve practical problems & improve the quality of life
Counseling Psychologist to help "normal" people with adjustment problems
Operational Definition specifying precisely how variables will obe observed abd measured
Developmental Psychologist Study individuals from birth to death
Naturalistic Study Observing behavior in natural setting
Case Study In-depth study used on individual or small group of people in uncommon or rare situations.
Correlational Study Studies the degree of relationship between two or more characteristics, events or behavior.
Survey Method Interviews/questionairs to discover data about attitudes, beliefs, opinions, experiences groups of people. "representative Sample"
Independent Variable Variable in the experiment that is directly manipulated
Dependent Variable Manipulated in result to variations of the independent variable
Control Group not exposed to independent variable or treatment.
Experimental Group Group exposed to independent variable or treatment.
Replication Repeating an investigation with different participants and investigators to verify results.
Confounding Variable factors other than the independent variables which are under across groups.
Socio-cultural Perspective Social and cultural influences.
Double-blind Technique Participants nor experimentors know who is experimental or control group
Deception/Debriefing Tricking participants in order to experiment
SQ3r Survey question read recite review
Cognitive Perspective Examines internal mental processes (How a person thinks)
Substantia Nigra Controls mid-brain unconcious actions. Ex: WALKING UP STAIRS
Glial Cells Hold neurons together in brian and spinal cord, eats waste/dead cells, manufactures and nourishes cells
Neural communication Physically interconnecting neurons transmitting signals throughout the body.
Serotonin Neurotransmitter.Mood, sleep, impulsativity, agression, and appetite.
Hypopathalamus Forebrain: hunger,thirst, body temperature, emotions, endocrine system.
Thalamas Forebrain: Relay situation betweencerebral cortex and lower brain centers.
Amygdala Limbic system: plays impotant role in emotion in response to unpleasant punishing stimuli.
Corpus Callosum Band of nerve fibers, connect connect the two sides of the brain. Allows for transfer of information and coordination between hemispheres.
Split-brain Studies Corpus callossum intentionallysevered to control epilepsy results in impossible communication, decreased frequency of seizures.
The 4 lobes Frontal: words, production of speech (brains area)Thinking emotional responses. Largest lobe. Practical: Touch, pressure, temperatures pain, controls how we use hands. Occipital: vision Temporal: Hearing. (werniche's area)
Functions of the cerebral cortex Language, memory, thinking
Hippocampus Limbic system: helps usform long-term memory. "neural maps" unexpected stimuli.
Sympathetic nervous system Puts body in state of emergency
Parasympathetic nervous system Mobilizes body back down after stress/emergency.
Pituitary gland Rest below Hypothalumus. "master gland"
Thyroid gland Below Larynx. Produces thyroxine, regulates food metabolism.
Lateralization of the brain Specialization of the brain w/ skills being concentrated on either hemisphere.
All-or-none law a nerve impulse from a weak stimulus is the same as a strong stimulus.
Spinal cord transmit messages between brain and prefferal nervous system
Binocular disparity Difference in images between the left and right eye.
Chapter 3 Sensation Sense stimulus transmitted to the central nervous system. SENSES
Perception Making sense of the sensations. Organized and interpreted by the brain.
Absolute Threshold Minimum amount of sensory stimulation. (minimum amount of sugar in cofee to taste it)
Difference threshold Minimum increase/decrease (already can taste sugar, how much it takes to change)
Weber's law Change must be in proportion to original stimulus. Ex: Bigger = Take more. Smaller = Take Less
Transduction Sensory info turned into nerual impulse Ex: Hearing something, hearing stiumlation to ears.
Sensory adaptation Ex:ciggarette smokers getting used to smell of smoke
Rods and Cones Rods = Allow eye to respond to light. (black and white) Cones: Allow to see color and detail, but not in bright light.
Perceptual grouping How the brain percieves grouped objects (similarity,closure,continuity,proximity)
Perceptual constancy How the brain percieves and recognizes the constancy of objects (size,shape,color,brightness)
Percepton of motion How the brain processes motion. (monocular/binocular depth cues)
Linear perspective Parallel lines are the same length until further down in distance.
Binocular depth cues Cues depending on eyes working together. Ex: Pen to eyes
Interposition One object blocking another.. the object blocked is further
Perceptual set expectation of what will be percieved, which can affect what is percieved Ex: Green raspberry shermert tasting limey
Illusions False perception of actual stimulus Ex: Oar in water
Top-down processing Previous knowledge/experience applied to perception for easier recognition. ex: dp 643 but saying its about baseball will influence thought process.
Bottom-up processing c_ _ ck l o USING BITS TO DISCOVER WHOLE h e r i
Accomodation flattening/bulging of discs due to focus on images.
Created by: mattbeezyy
 

 



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