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Fats, Carbs, Protein

Nutrition

QuestionAnswer
Carbohydrates Organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are a very effective fuel source for the body. The different types of carbohydrates include starches, sugars and fibers. Contains 4 calories per gram.
Cholesterol A type of fat that is a vital component in the production of many hormones in the body. The two most common types are HDL (good) and LDL (bad).
Fat One of the macronutrients. It contains 9 calories per gram. There are two types, saturated and unsaturated.
Glycogen The principal stored form of carbohydrate energy (glucose), which is reserved in muscles.
RDA Recomended Dietary Allowence (amount of nutrients considered adequate 2 prevent deficiency)
Pyloric sphincter separates stomach from small intestine
Fat Is the concentrated energy source for the body. It insulates and helps to protect the body’s organs. It serves as a carrier for the fat-soluble vitamin A, D, E and K.
Disaccharides these are made up of 2 sugar molecules.
Monosaccharides Simple sugars.
Chemical Digestion of Protein begins in stomach w/ the introduction of pepsin which breaks protein down into polypeptides. With addition of trypsin in the SI, proteins are broken down into amino acids.
Segments of the Small Intestine Duodenum- Jejunum- Ileum
Segments of the Colon Ascending- Transverse- decending
What amount of Physical activity prevents disease? 30 Minutes
What amount of physical activity assist with health maintenance? 60 Minutes
What amount of physical activity promotes weight loss? 90 Minutes.
What is the RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) of Trans Fat? No set amount, Just as little as possible.
How many calories are in a gram of Fat? 9 Calories
How many Calories are in a gram of protein? 4 Calories
How many calories are in a gram of Carbohydrate? 4 Calories
What organ is known as the powerhouse organ? The Liver. Blood transports nutrients to this organ first, taken to the heart second.
What nutrients are a concern for Vegans? Low Vitamin D, B12, Calcium, Omega 3, Iron, Zinc
Describe Marasmus Lack of sufficient energy intake. Thin muscle like mass
Describe Kwashiorkor Lack of protein while consuming adequate energy.
Positive Nitrogen Balance Nitrogen produces new cells for growth and healing
Negative Nitrogen Balance excreting more Nitrogen out than putting in. Found in eating disorders, starvation diets, surgery.
Mechanical Digestion is Chewing Biting Swallowing Churning Peristalsis
Chemical Digestion is Digestive secretions Gastric juices Enzymes
Peristalsis radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles which propagates in a wave down the muscular tube
Functions of the Stomach Store food- produces gastric juices- produces hormones- breakdown food chemically and mechanically-releases gastric protease- Produces and excretes intrinsic factor- destroys pathogenic bactiera.
Describe Lecithin It's an emulsifier, found naturally in soy beans, egg yolks, mayo. Prevents separation of fat and oil
Partially Hydrogenated Oil in an ingredient list means the food contains Trans Fat. Decreases HDL, Increase LDL
What foods contain cholesterol? Animal, beef, fish, eggs, milk, cheese. Plant foods do not contain cholesterol.
Sources of Monosaturated fatty acids Red Meat, avocados, nuts, whole milk products
Sources of Saturated fats butter, lard, cheese, cream. Contributes to atherosclerosis
What are the functions of Protein? Helps to build and repair, and replace cells and tissue. Produces hormones, and antibodies. Aids in hemoglobin transportation. Aids in hair and nail growth.
What foods are a part of MyPlate? Fruits, Grains, Vegetables, Protein, Dairy
How often are dietary guidelines are published Every 5 years
What are Micro villi? helps enhance absorption
What are Villi? increases mucosa layer and helps absorption
Function of fat Makes food taste better, smell better, makes us crave foods,
Dietary Cholesterol food intake limit should be less than _______ per day 300 mg
What are Complete Proteins? Contain all 9 essential Amino Acids. Has enough quantity, best support maintenance and growth in our body. EX: Soybean
What are incomplete Proteins? Lack 1 or more of the 9 essential Amino Acids. EX: plant foods, vegs, grains.
What hormones are produced by the pancreas? insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide
What hormones are produced by the stomach? Gastrin- pepsin
What are the three classifications of Lipids? Triglycerides- phospholipids- sterols
What is soluble fiber? it dissolves and thickens substances. decreases blood cholesterol. Found in pectin, gums, oatmeal, beans, apples, soy, pears, bananas, oranges, grapes.
What is insoluble fiber? Does not dissolve in fluids. helps with digestion and regularity. Found in whole grain, brown rice, popcorn, whole wheat flour, whole wheat pasta, broccoli
High source of daily nutrition 5% or more
What is a nutritionist? professional who has earned a degree in nutrition in foods
Registered Dietitian trained in management and completed internship
Chemical Digestion of fats begins in the _______ Stomach Gastric Glypaste breaks down trigylerides into fatty acids.
Chemical Digestion of protein begins in the _______ Stomach when Pepsin in secreted.
Created by: dgreen158