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chapter 3

Biomechanics study of mechanics as it relates to the functional and anatomical analysis of biological systems
Statics study of systems that are in constant motion, balanced
Dynamics study of systems in motion with acceleration, unbalanced
kinematics description of motion and includes consideration of time, displacment, velocity,acceleration and space factors of a systems motion
kinetics study of forces associated with the motion of a body
Mechanical advantage ideally using a relatively small force to move a much greater resistance
Machines function in 4 ways 1) balance multiple forces, 2) enhance force in an attempt to reduce total force needed to overcome a resistance, 3) enhance the range of motion and speed of movement 4)alter resulting direction of the applied force
what are the 3 types of machines for producing movement in the musculoskeletel system levers, pulleys, wheel-axles
First class levers F(A)---R produce speed and range of motion when axis is close to force
First class levers F---(A)R produce force when axis is close to resistance
What is an example of a first class lever? elbow extension in tricep
Second class lever produces force movements since a large resistance can be moved by a small force
What is an example of a 2nd class lever? plantar flexion in foot to raise body on toes
3rd class lever produce speed and range of motion movements and requires a large amount of force to move even a small resistance
What is an example of a 3rd class lever? biceps brachii in elbow flexion
Torque the turning effect of an eccentric force
Eccentric force force applied off center or in a direction not in line with the center of a rotation
Wheels and axles enhance range of motion and speed of movement in the musculoskeletal system
Pulleys function to change effective direction or force application
what is an example of a pulley? lateral malleolus on the peroneus longus
What are the 2 types of motion? linear and angular
linear motion motion along a line
what are the 2 types of linear motion? rectilinear and curvilinear
linear displacement distance that a system moves in a straight line
Angular motion rotation around an axis
Displacement distance that the object has been displaced from its original point of reference
Distance actual sum length of measurement traveled
Speed how fast an object moves in a specific amount of time
Velocity includes the direction and describes the rate of displacement
Law of inertia a body in motion stays in motion unless acted upon by force
Law of Acceleration Forces causes the body to change acceleration
Acceleration the rate of change in the body
Ground reaction force Force of the surface reacting to the force we place on it
Friction force that results from the resistance between two objects moving upon each other
What are the 3 types of friction? Static, rolling, kinetic
Static friction the amount of friction between 2 objects that have not yet moved
Kinetic friction the amount of friction between 2 objects that have moved
Rolling friction resistance to an object rolling across a surface
Dynamic equilibrium inertial forces acting on the moving body are in balance, movement has unchanging speed or direction
Static equilibrium body is completely motionless
Created by: ashley1723