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Patho III

Patho III (hepatitis, pituitary, diabetes, etc)

a relatively commin systemic disease that affects primarily the liver viral hepatitis
___ strains of viruses cause different types of hepatitis six
another name for infectious hepatitis HAV
another name Serum Hepatits HBV
also known as non-A, non-B hepatitis HCV
Hepatitis ___ can be revovered from the feces, bile, and sera of infected individuals A
Mode of transmission for HAV fecal-oral route, or by transfusion of infected blood
incubation period for HAV 4-6 weeks
Fecal shedding of HAV is greatest for _____ days before the onset of symptoms and during the 1st week of symptoms. The disease is most contagious during this time 10-14
antibodies to HAV (anti-HAV) develop about __ weeks after infection 4
The serum ___increases initially, followed by an increase in serum ___, which remains elevated for several years after infection, creating immunity to disease IgM, IgG
T or F. Six types of hepatitis include A, B, C,D, E,F false. A, B, C, D, E, G
Does Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) cause chronic liver disease No
Hepatitis B (serum hepatitis) is transmitted through contact with ___, ___or ____. infected bood, body fluids, contaminated needles
It's also a sexually transmitted disease and people ___, ___, or ____ have a greater risk of exposure or less resistance to HBV hemodialysis, multiple blood transfusions, immunosuppressive drugs
Mother -infant transmission occurs if the mother becomes infected with HBV during the __ trimester. 3
HBV has an incubation period of 6-8 weeks
virus that causes most cases of post-transfusion hepatitis HCV
The most common cause of Chronic liver disease in the western world HCV
Chronic hepatitis C is a risk factor for ___. hepatocellular carcinoma
Hepatitis D occurs in individuals with hepatitis __. B
The delta virus depends on the hepatitis B virus for its replication because the coat of the delta virus consist of ___ molecules that are on the surface of the HBV virus HBsAg
Parental drug users have a high incidence of hepatitis __ infection D
Hepatitis D has been known to suppress replication of the hepatitis __ virus B
The clinical course of Hepatitis __ is similiar to that of HAV and HBV, although it is sometimes more severe. HDV
Hepatitis __ is most common in developing countries and is transmitted by the fecal oral route, usually by contaminated water E
Hepatitis __ is common in developing countries, and has the highest mortality in pregnant women E
T or F. Vaccine is available for hepatitis E false
Hepatitis __ is a parenterally and sexually transmitted virus that does not seem to cause clinically significant hepatitis G
Hepatitis __ seems to decrease HIV viral load, increase CD4 T cells and slow down HIV disease progression G
HGV is transmitted by ____, from ____, and probably with low efficiency by ____. transfusion, mother to infant, sexual contact
The pathologic lesions of hepatitis are similiar to those caused by other viral infection. ____, ____, ____, _____ by mononuclear phagocytes occur with varying severity hepatic cell necrosis, scarring, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, infiltration
Regeneration of hepatic cells begins within ___ hours of injury. The infamm. process can damage and obstruct bile canaliculi. leading to cholestasis and obstructive icterus and damage to the liver parenchyma is most severe in cases of HBV and HCV. 48
HBV is associated with ____; a rare form of the dis. characterized by massive hepatic necrosis causing severe encephalopathy, which is manifested as confusion, stupor, and coma Acute Fulminating Hepatitis
In HBV, liver failure can occur, leading to ___, ___, and ____. intestinal bleeding, cardiorespiratory insufficiency, renal failure
Hepatitis __ reduces the intensity of HBV D
symptoms of the different types of hepatitis are very similar ranging from asymptomatic to fulminating hepatitis, with rapid onset of liver failure and coma and typically consist of which 3 phases? Prodromal, Icteric, and Recovery
Prodromal, also known as the (pre-icteric) begins 2 weeks after exposure and ends with the appearance of ____. icterus
symptoms of the prodromal phase include: fatigue, anorexia, malaise, n/v, h/a, hyperalgia, cough, and low-grade fever
What time of abdominal pain is common during the prodromal phase right upper quadrant
The hepatitis infection is ____ transmissible during the prodromal phase highly
The icteric (jaundice) phase begins 1-2 weeks after the prodromal phase and last ____ weeks 2-3
What causes jaundice during the icteric phase hepatocellular destruction and intrahepatic bile stasis
What color is stool and urine during the icterus phase before the onset of jaundice urine is dark and the feces are clay colored because the bilirubin is not going in the natural path that it should
T or F. serum bilirubin levels range from 5-10, are increased both conjugated and unconjucated in hepatitis True
PT may be ____ in patients with serious forms of hepatitis prolonged
____ phase (post-icteric phase) begins with resolution of icterus, about 6-8 weeks after exposure Recovery
T or F. Chronic Hepatitis may begin at the recovery phase and is associated with HBV True
Progression of Chronic Hepatitis Chronic hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, liver failure or liver cancer
hepatic _____ is manifested as lethargy, altered motor functions and coma encephalopathy
Liver function tests show elevations of both direct and indirect serum __, ___, and ___. bilirubin, serum transaminases, blood ammonia
T of F. Cirrhosis is a reversible inflammatory disease caused by diffuse fibrosis and nodular regeneration that disrupts the liver structure and function. F. irreversible
What are the two types of cirrhosis Alcoholic cirrhosis, and biliary cirrhosis
alcoholic cirrhosis begins with ___ which can occur without subsequent hepatitis or cirrhosis and cessation of alcohol intake reverses the fatty accumulation fatty infiltration
T or F. Fatty infiltraton causes no specific sypmtoms or abnormal liver function test. True
_____ is a multiple system disease and causes hepatomegaly, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, splenomegaly, portal hypertension, gastrointestinal hemorrhage and esophageal varices. Cirrhosis
Biliary cirrhosis differs from alcoholic cirrhosis in that the damage and inflammation leading to cirrhosis begin in ____and ___, rather than the hepatocytes bile canaliculi and bile ducts
The 2 types of biliary cirrhosis are : primary and secondary
____ is an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation and destruction of small intrahepatic bile ducts Primary biliary cirrhosis
the hallmark of primary biliary cirrhosis mitochondrial autoantibodies
____ develops during the later stages of primary biliary cirrhosis Portal hypertension
Progression of biliary cirrhosis inflammation>> destruction>> fibrosis>> obstruction of the intrahepatic bile ducts>> nodular regeneration>> cirrhosis
what serologic test are elevated in primary biliary cirrhosis, with or without other clinical manifestations alkaline phosphatase and hyperlipidemia
_____ develops when there is a prolonged partial or complete obstruction of the common bile duct or its branches caused by gallstones, tumors, fibrotic structures, or chronic pancreatitis. Secondary biliary cirrhosis
____ provides most definitive diagnosis of secondary biliary cirrhosis cholangiography
represents the effects of renal failure, including retention of toxic wastes, deficiency states, and electrolyte disorders uremia
means increased serum urea levels and frequently, increased creatinine levels as well azotemia
refers to a decline in renal function to about 25% of normal or a GFR of 25 to 30ml/min. and mildly elevated serum creatinine renal insufficiency
sudden decrease function with decrease in GFR and accumulation of nitrogenous waste products in the blood Acute kidney injury (aka ARF)
less than 400ml/day or 30ml/hr of urine is seen in acuter kidney injury
Acute kidney injury commonlresults from: extracellular vol. depletion, decreased renal blood flow, toxic/inflammatory injurt to renal cells.
T or F. Most cases of acute renal failure are irreversible. false. reversible.
Type of acute renal failure that is caused by renal hypoperfusion, which leads to decrease GFR d/t decrease filtration pressure. Prenal
Type of acute renal failure that may result from pre-renal failure or many other diseases, including: ischemic ATN, nephrotoxic ATN, malignant htn, etc intrarenal (intrinsic)
ATN, the most common cause of ARF can be_____ and _____. postischemic, nephrotoxic
Acute renal failure with bilateral urinary tract obstruction( bladder outlet obstruction,prostatic hypertrophy, or bilateraly ureteral obstruction. post renal
T or F. Plasma creatinine is inversely proportional to GFR. True
_____, the osmotic diuretic, causes renal vasodilation with increased renal blood flow and GFR Mannitol
_____is generally controlled and nutrition maintained with low-protein, high carb diet. Azotemia
progressive and irreversible loss of renal function, with a GFR less than 60ml/min/1.73m2 regardless of cause chronic kidney disease
Renal failure is not usually apparent until the renal function declines to less than___% of normal 25
There major kinds of renal stones are: calcium oxalate (75-85%) Struvite (magnesium, ammonium, phosphate) 15% Uric acid (7%)
uric acid tends to crystallize in an acidic urine, particularly when the pH remains below 5.5 and urine vol. is low. ___ and ___ stones form independently of the urine pH. Calcium oxalate, cystine
_____ are defined as a break in the continuity of a bone which typically occurs when the force applied exceeds the tensile or comprehensive strength of the bone. fractures
The highest incidence of fractures are in? young males (15-24yrs) and adults (65 years and older).
Fractures of healthy long bones (tibia, clavicle, and lower humerus) usually happen in which group of people? Young people as a result of trauma
fractures of the hands and feet are usually caused by what? accidents in the workplace
fractures of the upper femur, upper humerus, vertabrae and pelvis is higher in which population? What is it often associated with older or elderly adults, often associated with osteoporosis
Fractures are classified by cause as: __, __, __. pathologic, stress, transchondral
_____ fractures are a break at the site of a pre-existing abnormal condition, by a force that wouldn't do it to a normal bone(tumors, osteoporosis, infections, and metabolic bone disorders) pathologic
type of fracture that occurs in normal or abnormal bone subjected to repeated stress (athletic events). The stress is less than the one usually causing the fracture. stress
Types of Stress fractures? Fatigue and insufficiency
Which type of stress fracture is caused by abnormal stress or torque applied to a bone with normal ability to deform and recover (joggers, dancers) Fatigue
Type of stress fracture occurring in bones lacking normal ability to deform and recovery (normal weight bearing and activity) insufficiency
Type of fracture (osteochondritis dissecans) where there is fragmentation and separation of a portion of the articular cartilage that covers the end of a bone at a joint (head of the femur, ankle, patella,
Created by: Bvaleris