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midterm #1

tundra or alpine: where? CA? why? plant adaptations? conservation? north america, siberia, andes, mt. kilimanjaro; Southern sierras; Freexing temperatures for 7 months and little rain; perennial herbs of grasses, no fires; OK
Did the Greeks know the earth was round? Aristotle did because (1)the way the coulds move (2)north star (3) eclipse of the moon
boreal forests: where? CA? why? plant adaptations? conservation? Canada, russia/siberia; Sequoia; The ground doesn't freeze for as long as in tundras; Conifers (cone bearing, needles), sequois'a cones only open in fire, grounds burn like a cigarette, crown fires caused by lack of frequent fires (suppressed fires); OK
temperate deciduous forests: where? CA? why? plant adaptations? conservation? Eastern US, western europe, china, japan, new zealand; No; Winter cold, summer hot, arctic/tropical contrast; Hard woods, flowering plants, no fires; OK
Temperate grassland: where? CA? why? plant adaptations? conservation? Midwest US (prairies), Stepps Russia, Pompas (of Argentina); Yes; Mountains, cold winter and warm summer, mountain rainshadow; Perennial and annual grassland, annual roots small, perennial roots deep, fire important; Bad
Mediterranean Shrub: where? CA? why? plant adaptations? conservation? Mediterranean, ca, central chile, south africa, australia (symmetry); Yes; Summer hot, winter cold, cold water currents; Shrubs, plants adapted, fires very important; OK to bad, lots of development
Desert (hot/cold): where? CA? why? plant adaptations? conservation? Sahara, australia, ca/Gobi, iran; Yes/No; Less than 50 cm of annual rain, rainshadows; Succulent, thorns, annuals/No succulent, perennials, no fires; OK
Tropical rainforest: where? CA? why? plant adaptations? conservation? Amazon, congo, southeast asia; No; rainshadows at high altitudes, ITCZ; Tall forests, roots shallow, tree diversity, epiphyte; OK
ITCZ inter tropical convergence zone: low pressure system that follows the sun, hits equator and bounces up, around and down to deserts
Epiphyte plant that lives on another plant
Tropical Savannas: where? CA? why? plant adaptations? conservation? Brazil, venezuela, parts of india, australia; No; rainshadows (precipitation is higher than desert (50-100 cm); Grasslands, Scattered trees, fires part of one year cycle that maintains ecosystem
How are plants adapted to the Mediterranean climate? They hae small leaves, evergreen, light color, leaves point up
How are Mediterranean plants adapted to fire? The seeds won't open without it
DNA Doexyribonucleic Acid, 1970, you can break it into adenine-thymine (AT) and cytosine-guanine (CG)
Eve 150,000 years ago, creation of the x-chromosome
Adam 60,000 years ago, creation of the y-chromosome
Megafauna large animals, over 100 lbs, mammoth, extinct
Paul Martin Munch Hypothesis overkill hypothesis, with the coldening atmosphere humans migrated south and encountered animals who weren’t afraid of humans because they didn’t know they had to be
5 megafauna we used to have in LA tigers, lions, saber tooth tigers, horses, camels, rhinos
New Zealand 1,000 years ago They had wombats 2,000 lbs, kangaroos 2,000 lbs, marsupial wolf, koala the size of a bear, humans hunted them into extinction, moa had 8 foot long drumstick and no wings
Island Gigantism and Dwarfism Gigantism-mammoth, kamoda dragon, get bigger to surive. Dwarfism-deers in Florida, get smaller to survive
Population throughout history 1650: 0.5 billion, 1820: 1 billion, 1930 (grandparents): 2 billion, 1975: 4 billion, 2000: 6 billion, 2013: 7 billion
Thomas Malthus Theory Linear graph. Thought eventually the amount of people would surpass the agriculture available. Wrong because he didn't take into account immigration or technology improvements
Family planning program from 60s, 70s to now THEN: all based on centralized government, very incentive based, aimed at the head of the family (ie the man) NOW: huge switch to local control with money, family planning based on local culture, switched to need based, aimed at woman
What happened to Cuba agriculture after the Soviet Union dissolved? no supplies were sent so they had to return to bicycles, oxen, natural pesticides and intercropping protected crops, and natural fertilizer
Population status: The Bad INDIA (1.1 bilion)-each month add 1.5 million, highest literacy rate in southern India where there's lowest population, PAKISTAN (143 million)-will double every 5 years, NIGERIA (129 milion)-double every 24 years
Population status: The Awesome IRAN-replacement size families, $ towards public health, 52 med schools, .5 of doctors are women, SOUTHEAST ASIA-replacement size families, CHINA-1.3 billion, one child policy, 0.5 million people die from air pollution
Flu pigs and ducks
Measles and Tiburculosis cattle
HIV/AIDS green monkeys
Spices: Where? Grown? Impact? India (cloves), Mexico (chili pepper); small herb stuck in the ground (chili pepper); Good
Potato: Where? Grown? Impact? Solanum tuberosum) new world, highland andes, columbia to chile; grown underground; Good, planted underground with little soil erosion
Sugar: Where? Grown? Impact? (Saccharum officinarum) Indonesia, papa new guinea; Grass, grows fast, perennial, sends out roots to sprout new stalks; Monoculture, threatens coral reefs, susidized in florida because of lobbying
Cacao: Where? Grown? Impact? (Theobroma cacao, "food of the gods") Foothills of andes; Hangs off sides of tree; Bad, monoculture
Tea: Where? Grown? Impact? (Camellia somemsois) China; Shrub, pick leaves; Bad
Coffee: Where? Grown? Impact? (Coffea arabica) Highlands of Ethiopia, brazil; grows in latitudinal branch; Good (shade coffee-planted in the shade of trees which allows animals to still live in area, natural pests help curb erosion) Bad (crops exposed, lots of erosion)
rubber tree: Where? Grown? Impact? (Hevea brasiliensis) Brazil; Can't have monoculture because of fungus so must be protected by other trees; Excellent in brazil, bad where monoculture
banana: Where? Grown? Impact? (musa spp.) New guinea; Grown off leave of trees,1 hectar can get 4,480 lbs; Bad when monoculture
pineapple: Where? Grown? Impact? (ananas cosmsus) Paraguay; Stalk with leaves and them pineapple on top; Bad, they remove all the exotics and bare soil is left
orange: Where? (citrus) China
mango: Where? India
Strawberry: Where? North America, europe
Opium Poppy: Where? Grown? Impact? (papaver somniferum) Mediterranean; Annuals, long stem with tar, morphine, afghanistan has huge bumper crop; Good
Coco: Where? Grown? (Erthroxylum coca) Andes; First in calories, protein, carbohydrates and fiber when compared to 50 other plants, decriminalized
Try everything once except... and... incest and heroin
Maize: Where? Grown? Impact? (Zea mays) Mexico; Stalks; If monoculture like in u.s.-bad, in tropics with intercropping-good
Wheat: Where? Grown? Impact? (Triticum) Iran; Grown annually, grass that grows up with large seeds on top; Monoculture bad
Rice: Where? Grown? Impact? (Oryza sativa) Southern himalayas; Wet method-fill up and area with water and stick the rice seedlings in it. Dry-planted on slopes, planted individually but must weed aroung it; Good to bad
How do you make a zombie? Use an extract from puffer fish, which is now used during open heart surgery to slow down the heartbeat
Big Five exports from California (1) almonds, (2) cotton, (3) wine, (4) dairy and (5) grapes
Genetically modified foods: Good things about it Also called franken food; Large yield, disease and pest resistant, increases environmental tolerance (you can take a drought-resistant corn to a desert and it will grow)
Oaks: What did the California Indians use acorns for? (Quercus sp.) Acorns were primary food source, leach them to get meal; wood used for bows
Manzanita: What did the California Indians use acorns for? (Arctostaphylos sp.) poor hot water over berries to make cider; wood used for bows
Elderberry: What did the California Indians use acorns for? (Sambucus sp.) brewed flowers for fevers, upset stomach and flu; rich source of vitamin c; stem used for arrow shaft and flutes; raw berry can cause nausea but dried or cooked are ok
Laurel Sumac: What did the California Indians use acorns for? (Rhus sp.) leaves used for mosquito repellent; Lemonade Berry (Rhus intergrifolia) has berries that are soaked and hairs removed to make pink lemonade
Toyon, Christmas Berry: What did the California Indians use acorns for? (Heteromeles arbutifolia) red berries not edible, but if properly prepared can be used for flour; gave hollywood its name although its not a holly but a rose
Yucca, Our Lords Candle: What did the California Indians use acorns for? (Yucca sp.) the leaves are strong and used for water proof baskets; leaves used as needle and thread to make clothes and homes; roots used for soap
Cactus: What did the California Indians use acorns for? red fruits are edible but watch for very small spines, green leaf can be cooked and eaten (commonly still done today)
Willow: What did the California Indians use acorns for? (Salix sp.) leaves used to make aspirin, indians would chew them for toothaches
California Buckeye: What did the California Indians use acorns for? seeds ground into fine dust and put in stream to catch fish
Forest Reserve Act 1891, president can set aside land for national parks. 1st yellowstone, 2nd yosemite
Multiple Use and Sustained Use Act (5) (1) outdoor recreation (2) range land (3) timber (4) watershed protection (5) wildlife and fish habitat
What is clearcutting (4) (1) identify land to be cut (2) build roads (3) cut every single last solitary tree (4) cable logging-drag all trees to the road and ruin soil
4 Problems with clearcutting (1) soil erosion (2) run-off sediment (3) loss of diversity (4) need a lot of herbicides
US Department of Agriculture National Forest Service, separates forests from parks
US Department of Interior National Park Service, land left unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations
What was a billion dollar lost a year in the 80s? $1.3 billion for clearcutting, but 24,000 jobs gained
How does the Nature Conservancy protect forests? they buy land
How does the Sierra Club protect forests? started by John Muir, a poltical activist group
How does the Earth First/ELF protect forests? extreme activists, tree sitting, tree chaining, tree spiking
tallest tree Redwood; today 96% cut, 4% left, 2% private, 2% federal or state
largest tree Sequoia
oldest tree Bristle Cone Pine; 4,700 years
How have forests in the West changed over the last 100 years? large percentages cut down and exported; lots of logging, including logging roads, loss of old growth trees
Roadless areas 44,000 miles of highways in US, 380,000 miles of logging roads; 2001 passed Roadless Area Conservation Rule to stop construction of any new roads
Fire policy 2003 Bush passed Healthy Forest Initiative which increased size of tree you can cut (20-30 in), 2006 Secure Rural Schools and Community Self Determination Act-sell public land to raise money for schools
Fire problems litter build up from dropped pine needles and no fires to get rid of them (suppressed fires), forests changed from open forests to closed forests (crown fires), species change, pests
Fire choices mechanical thinning, reintroduce fire, do absolutely nothing and let nature take its course
Healthy Forest Initiative: Why good? Why bad? allowed logging companies to log near houses to help prevent forest fires, but in reality opened up new areas to logging and logging is being conducted far away from homes
Why tropical forests have been lost over the last 50 years Subsistence agriculture, commercial agriculture, forest fires in the tropics, fuelwood, timber, living fences (good!)
Subsistence agriculture you grow stuff for yourself in order to survive
Commercial Agriculture when selectd crops are planted specifically for profit
5 commercial agriculture crops (1) oil palms (2) rubber plantations [southeast asia] (3) coffee plantations [brazil] (4) bananas [south america] (5) coco-chocolate [west africa]
Forest fires in the tropics tropical rainforests are not adapted to fires; agricultural frontier-they cut it down and the beginning of the dry season and burn it; el niño (ENSO)
Fuel Wood important especially in areas with no electricty; living fences
Timber teak form southeast asia-large sections of forest is demolished; we have to monitor what trees come into the US and what we do with them (ITTO: international tropical timber organization)
Mahogany in South America there's a beetle that can cause the tree to die or grow weirdly, very expesinve, large profits in US
Living fences when you select a tree and intentionally plant it along a street which makes it very accesible for firewood and fruit
Forest fragmentation (species area rule) forests changed dramatically; the bigger the area, the more species; when you increase an area by 10 it doubles diversity
Selective extincition very organized process; megafauna first to go; order of extinction (1) large animals (2) animals restricted to forests (3) rare animals
The Florida Everglades restoration project is currently using the following strategies: incorporates (1) controls on agricultural runoff, (2) the conversion of some agricultural land to marshes, (3) massive project to reengineer canals, levees, and pumps for a more natural water flow.
Which biomes would you most likely find yourself standing in if you were standing at 45 degrees north latitude with a medium level of precipitation (not too wet, not too dry)? temperate grassland
The 18th century British economist Thomas Malthus said that ____ grows exponentially, whle ____ grows in a linear fashoin. He predicted this would cause ____. population; food supply; famine, disease and war
An age structure diagram that represents rapid growth for a population looks like a ____. pyramid
Research in ecology has shown that the process of ecological succession leads to a(n) ____ model of a community of organisms. (blank)
The "wise-use-movement" wants to change the Endangered Species Act so ____ are considered along with ____. economic factors; scientific ones
What is a Wildlife corridor? When loggers set aside unlogged areas as sanctuaries for organisms.
Which is not a type of harvesting trees? (know ones that are) selective cutting, shelterwood cutting, seed tree cutting, and clear-cutting
Forest covers what percent of the Earth? (land area) less than 1/3
Ecologists have recently documented that in Yellowstone National Park ____ have reduced the abundace of native vegetation, such as will and aspen, and have seriously eroded stream banks. elk
The slash-and-burn practice includes: clearing small patches of tropical forest to plant crops
Rapid human population growth is typically found: high fertility
Sustainable development considers three important factors because: (1) environmentally sound decisions do not harm the environment or deplete natural resources, (2) socially equitable decisions reflect the needs of society and ensure the osts and benefits are shared equally (3) economically viable decisions consider envi
The IPAT equation refers to: Impact=People x Affluence x environmental effect of technology
An activity that is "sustainable" by definition should: function indefinitely
The process by which one tectonic plate is gorced beneath another is: subduction
The location within the Earth where an earthquake originates it the: focus
The station zone of magma flowering upward from an undersea opening in the Earth's crust is a(n): hot spot
The role of organisms in soil is: to maintain soil soil fertility, prevent soil erosion, break down toxic material, and cleanse water
What percent of the world's soil is suitable for agriculture? 11%
The main world food problems are: undernutrition, malnutrition, overnutrition and food insecurity
The Green Revolution is: producing more food by using modern cultivation methods and the high-yield varieties of certain staple crops
The scientific community have conclusive evidence to agree that Genetically Modified Foods are: safe
One of the worst problems with pesticides is that: pesticides affect more species than the pests for which they are intended
Nomadic herding is: when livestock are supported by land too arid for successful crop growth.
Vegetation types in tropics: mangroves (salt marsh), swamps, rainforests, cloud forests, dry forest
exotic species australia: cactus, rabbits
World's most endangered forest hawaii
bison one fo few megafauna left; better than cattle because adapted to winter, small hooves
grasslands in CA native grasslands are almost all gone, dominated by exotics; vernal pools: hard pan, very pretty before they dry up, important for endemic species; oak woodlands; chaparral
Created by: katydid