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Hierarchy for Organisms KPCOFGS Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
Prokarotic single cells, NO nucleus or cellular organelles. Ex: Bacteria/Eubacteria/Archaebacteria
Eurkaryotic multi cellular, have nucleus, - plants, animals, fungi, protista
Mutations source of variation, in DNA, most are harmful
Adaptive Traits ( non harmful mutations) gives an individual an advantage to survive, ie: sickle cell survives malaria; certain bacteria only live in hot environments
Evolution occurs in population, not person, occurs in DNA. Ex: smaller jaw, obsolete appendix, little toe shrinking,
Artificial Selection breeders favor some traits, breed them. Size of tomatoes, tangelos, labradoodles
Natural Selection "survival of the fittest" = whether or not ones genes are included in the next generation
Scientific Method 1 Observe 2 Develop Hypothesis 3 Make a prediction 4 Test 5 Analyze the results / Conclusion
Element fundamental form of matter, can't be broken apart naturally
Biological CHNOPS most common elements in a living organisms: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfer
Atoms smallest particles that retain properties of an element. Have Protons, Neutrons, Electrons.
Atomic Number the number of protons in an element
Mass Number the number of protons AND neutrons
Ionic Bond 2 atoms exchange electrons, transferred. *Broken with water*
Covalent Bond 2 atoms share electrons
Hydrogen Bond occur between hydrogen and nitrogen or hydrogen and oxygen. *Within ajacent molecules. Weak individually, Very Strong in large numbers. **The only way to break a hydrogen bond is with heat***
Ions formed when an element gains or loses e- making it + or -
90% of cells are water
Water Polar. Solvent. Cohesive (molecules bound tightly). Temperature Stabilizing Effect.
Specific Heat amount of energy needed to change one gram one degree celsius
Hydrophilic Love water. Polar, dissolves in water .. sugar, salt.
Hydrophobic Non polar, doesn't dissolve in water .. oil.
pH scale the measure of hydrogen ions in a solution
Acidic more H+, donate H+, lower pH, produce H when react with metal, OJ, tomatoes, coffee ; begins with H = acid; HCl
Basic fewer H+, accept H+, when electrolyzed they release -OH, cleaners, milk of magnesium, bleach ; ends with OH = base; NaOH
All life is made of Carbon 6 on periodic table, 6 protons, 6 neutrons, mass number = 12.
Neutrons are sticky they're inbetween the protons to keep the nucleus together
What kind of bonds does Carbon choose ? covalent, can bond with itself - single, double, or triple bonds.
Lipids insulation, energy ; cholesteral, waxes, fats. Cell membranes are two layers of lipids.
Saturated/Unsaturated Sat - single bonds Unsat - one or more double bonds
Carbohydrates (-ose) used for energy, respiration, and make up exoskeletons, covalent bonds
Monosaccharides dioxyribose
Polysaccharides ribose
Proteins form blood, hair, nails, muscles and enzymes. ** DNA makes protein.
Amino acids 20 naturally occur. Peptide bonds.
AA Primary / Secondary sequence of AA / twist, pleated sheet, alphahelix
AA Tertiary / Quaternary twisted bonded shape / 4 tertiaries
Cells are measured in micrometers, their parts are measured in nanometers
Why aren't cells bigger? They rely on the cell membrane to transport everything. Oxygen can't diffuse that far. **Surface Area to Volume Ratio **
Cell Theory 1 - All living things are made of cells. 2 - the cell is the smallest unit having the properties of life. 3 - Continuity of life arises directly from growth and cell division of single cells.
Three Basic Parts of a Cell 1) Cell Membrane (2) DNA containing region (3) Cytoplasm containing ribosomes (to transcribe DNA)
Cell Membrane made of phospholipids, double membrane, hydrophillic heads with hydrophobic tails. They are fluid mosiacs.
Chromatin All DNA associated proteins in the nucleus
ER bends proteins into shape
Golgi body transports protein out of the cell
Lysosomes waste disposal
Vacuoles *in plants* controls the water levels
Mitochondrion site of respiration, makes ATP
Cristae squiggle in mitochondra
Chloroplasts *in plants* contains thylakoids, site of photosynthesis
Buffers stop a change in pH, soaks up H+, keeps solution neutral, blood is a buffer
The higher things go, the _____ potential energy it hass greater
Energy is the capacity to do work
Energy cannot be created nor destroyed
Energy flows from high to low, down the concentration gradient, with heat being the least useful form
Every conversion of energy releases heat.
As a system loses energy it becomes more disorganized.
Entropy the measure of disorder of a system
ATP made of Adenine, ribose, and 3 phosphates
Each glucose produces, how many ATP? 36
Phosphates are bound by high energy bonds
Metabolism is directional, down the concentration gradient, releases energy/heat. It either makes something ~ photosynthesis, or uses something up ~ respiration
Endergonic the rxn needs a kick start
Exergonic spontaneous and release energy.
Exothermic Rxn gives off more energy than it uses to start
Endothermic Rxn uses more energy to begin than it gives off
Enzymes lowers necessary activation energy, can be reused, specific to certain parts of the reactions,
All enzymes are proteins. They only work in certain temperatures, pHs and salinities.
Heterotrophs feed on other things
Autotrophs produce their own food
1st stage of photosynthesis Requires light. Water is split by light, drives out e-, when it goes back to ground state, it releases energy, the e- get caught in the chlorophyll, finally releasing oxygen, occurs in and out of the membranes of the chloroplasts stacks.
2nd stage of photosynthsis independent of light.
Fermentation yeast cells > only produce 2 ATP per 1 glucose, an aerobic conditions; produces alcohol
Aerobic Respiration mitochondria releases 36 ATP
Electron transport chains (photosynthesis and aerobic respiration) yields 32 ATP
Lactic acid builds up in muscles, lack of oxygen, cramps
Why do cells divide? to allow us to be more complex, to grow, to reproduce offspring ;; to repair and replace dead cells
Prokaryotes reproduce... through fission, ~asexual~
Eukaryotes reproduce.. by mitosis and meiosis ;; sexual
Chromosomes very tightly coiled DNA, coiled around histones
Humans have ___ chromosomes 46 with 23 pairs.
22 pairs are autosomal ; one pair controls our sexQuaterary
Mitosis chromosomes duplicate, two daughter cells just like parent cell
Cancer is cell division our of control
Alleles different forms of the gene
Meiosis Parent is diploid, chromosomes duplicate, cell splits, then splits again. 4 haploids are produced.
Nondisjunction occurs when incorrect # of chromosomes end up in a gamete cell
Monohybrid one allele pair
Homozygous the alleles are the same
Heterozygous the alleles are different
Back cross/test cross uses a double recessive to test pure breed
DNA is made up of nucleotides
Nucleotides are three molecules -- phosphate, pentose sugar, nitrogen base
Purines two rings, adenine, guanine
Pyrimidines one ring, thymine, cytosine, uracil
# of Hydrogen bonds btwn A&T 2
# of Hydrogen bonds btwn C&G 3
These check to be sure there were no mistakes made in replication Enzymes
Replication DNA makes DNA
Transcription DNA makes RNA
Translation RNA makes protein
RNA a copy of one side, single strand, has NO thymine, Uracil instead,
3 nucleotide bases = a codon
AUG is the start codon
mRNA, rRNA, tRNA messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA
Deletion in transcriptions can cause the ribosome to miss the cue to start making proteins, and certain proteins are left out. *deletions cause frameshift mutations* Ex: cystic fibrosis
Created by: malsue88