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Optometric Tech

Things for Optometric Techs to know

What do you want to confirm with the patient during pretesting? All patient information.
What specifically should you look for on the patient's health history and family health history? If the patient has listed who the family members are.
How long should pretesting take? 6 minutes
What are the 3 steps to greeting the patient? Welcome them, introduce yourself, and tell them what you're going to be doing.
What are the 3 steps to ending the pretesting with the patient? Thank them, guide them to the lobby, explain that the doctor will see them shortly.
To minimize back up and have an average of 6 minutes per test, what do you need to do? Know your exam instruments, talk to the patient while performing tests, time yourself and make adjustments.
What percentage of people have eye defects (refractive errors)? 60%
What part of the body has been called the most complex part of the body? The eye.
What is the eye comparative to? A camera.
What part of the eye does the light first come through? The cornea.
How is the amount of light coming in controlled? With the pupil.
What does the light focus on? The retina.
What sends a record of the image to the brain via the optic nerve? The retina.
If the cornea was a part of a camera, what would it be? The glass of the aperture.
If the pupil were a part of a camera, what would it be? A camera shutter.
If the retina were a part of a camera, what would it be? The camera film.
Define the cornea: Clear, transparent lining which covers the iris and the pupil.
What is the 1st refracting body of the eye? The cornea.
How much focal power does the cornea yield? 43 diopters.
What are the 5 membranes of the cornea? Epithelium, Bowman's Membrane, Stroma, Descemet's Membrane, Endothelium.
Define the sclera: Tough white covering of the eyeball.
What is the sclera often referred to as? The "white of the eye".
Define the lens: The transparent/colorless body located towards the front of the eyeball.
What is the lens also called? The "crystalline lens".
What does the lens do? It brings rays of light to a sharp focus on the retina.
Define the pupil: The opening in the iris that allows light into the eye.
Define the iris: The colored band at the front of the eye.
How does the iris control the amount of light entering the eye? It changes the size of the pupil.
Define the conjunctiva: The clear covering the lines the outer surface of the eyeball and covers the inner side of the eyelids.
Define the vitreous humor: Clear, gel-like material located in a large chamber at the back of the eyeball.
Define the retina: The innermost membrane lining located at the back of the eye.
What is the retina made of? Nerve fibers.
What is reduced visual acuity? Not seeing well enough to have "normal" vision.
What is visual acuity? A measurement of the clarity of vision.
How is visual acuity determined? By measuring the smallest object that can be seen at a specific distance.
What is the distance of the chart, usually? 20 ft.
What is the visual acuity chart called? The Snellen chart.
Define the Snellen chart: A chart made of letters of different sizes that have numbers that measure the visual acuity.
What is normal vision considered to be? 20/20
What is the top # of the visual acuity? The testing distance.
What is the bottom # of the visual acuity? The size of the smallest item seen clearly.
What are the two reasons for a refractive error? A refractive error, and a pathological error.
Define refractive error: When the reason for decreased vision is a refractive error and they eye is free of disease.
Can a refractive error be normally corrected to be 20/20? Yes.
Can a pathological error usually be corrected to be 20/20? No.
Define pathological error: When the reduced vision is due to a disease.
Is Emmetropia near-sightedness, far-sightedness, or normal vision? Normal vision.
Define Emmetropia: When parallel rays of light come to focus on the retina for 20/20 vision.
Is Myopia near-sightedness, far-sightedness, or normal vision? Near-sightedness.
Define Myopia: When the surface of the eye is too curved causing rays of light to come to a focal point in front of the retina.
What kind of refractive power does a myopic eye have? The eye has too much refractive power and is stronger than it should be.
Define Hyperopia: When the surface of the eye is not curved as it should be causing rays of light to come to a focal point behind the retina.
Is Hyperopia near-sightedness, far-sightedness, or normal vision? Far-sightedness.
What kind of refractive power does a hyperopic eye have? It is weaker than it should be.
Define astigmatism: When light rays come to a focus unevenly.
Is Astigmatism far-sightedness, or near-sightedness? It causes both.
What is Astigmatism caused by? A cornea that is not spherical.
What kind of problems do people with astigmatism face? Distorted images, problems seeing at all distances.
Define presbyopia: The gradual loss of accommodation.
Define accommodation: The lens's ability to focus to focus on near objects.
When does the lens start to gradually lose its ability to accommodate? Around the age of 12.
When does the patient usually experience the eventual result of the loss of accommodation? Around the age of 40.
How does the lens focus on near objects? The muscles that control the lens constrict.
How does the lens focus on far away objects? The muscles that control the lens relax.
What do patients with presbyopia have trouble with? They have trouble with doing close work, and reading in low light situations.
When do the symptoms of presbyopia usually worsen? Toward the end of the day or when the patient gets tired.
The eye is the most complex organ in the body except for... The brain.
The eye can process how many bits of information per hour? 36,000
The eye can discern the light of a candle at a distance of how many miles under the right conditions? 14 miles
What percentage of the pathways to the brain do the eyes use? 65%
What can the eye instantaneously set in motion? Hundreds of muscles and organs.
What is the measurement of an adult eyeball? 1 inch in diameter (2.5cm)
How much of the eye's surface area is exposed? 1/6
The eye is composed of how many working parts? Over 1 million
How many images does the eye bring a human in a normal life span? 24 million
Which muscles are the strongest muscles in the human body? The external muscles of the eye.
How strong are the external muscles of the eye? 100 times stronger than they need to be.
The eye is the only part of the body that can do what? Function at 100% ability at all times.
What is refraction? The process of deviation (bending) light rays as they pass through a transparent object.
How does an eyeglass lens or contact lens work to correct refraction? The lens has the ability to bend the focal point of the light to rest on the retina.
What does "OD" stand for? Right eye
What does "OS" stand for? Left eye
What does "OU" stand for? Both eyes
What does "C" stand for? With
What does "SC" stand for? Without
What does "VA" stand for? Visual Acuity
What does "CC" stand for? Chief Complaint
What does "C/O" stand for? Complaint Of
What does "R" stand for? Right
What does "L" stand for? Left
What does (arrow up) stand for? Increase
What does (arrow down) stand for? Decrease
What does "OV" stand for? Office Visit
What does "X" stand for? Times/For
What does "BID" stand for? Twice a Day
What does "TID" stand for? Three Times a Day
What does "N" stand for? Near
What does "D" stand for? Distance
What does "NKDA" stand for? No Known Drug Allergies
What does "LEE" stand for? Last Eye Exam
What does "AWT" stand for? Average Wearing Time
What does @ stand for? At
What does "PT" stand for? Patient
What does "CU" stand for? Customer
What does "CL" stand for? Contact Lens
What does "RGP" stand for? Rigid Gas Permeable Contact Lens
What does "SOL" stand for? Contact Lens Solution
What does "BP" stand for? Blood Pressure
What does "IOP" stand for? Intraocular Pressure
What does "CEE" stand for? Comprehensive Eye Examination
What does "RE" stand for? Recheck
What does "WTT" stand for? Wearing Time Today
What does "OcHx" stand for? Ocular History
What does "PMHX" stand for? Past Medical History
What does "REE" stand for? Routine Eye Exam
What does "POHX" stand for? Family Ocular History
What does "PRN" stand for? As Needed
What does "F/U" stand for? Follow-Up
What does (triangle) stand for? Change
What does "MEDS" stand for? Current Medications
When a new patient comes in for an exam, what should they have filled out? The entire inside top portion of the patient record.
How many tests should be performed on a new patient exam? All tests.
What are all of the tests that the tech performs? The NCT, Auto Refractor, Auto Keratometer, Visual Acuity, Auto-Lensometry, Color and Depth Perception.
What kind of questions should you ask a new patient? PMHX, MEDS, OcHx, NKDA, and CC.
What question would you ask at a new patient exam for PMHX? Has your medical history changed since your last exam?
What question would you ask at a new patient exam for MEDS? Are you taking any medication/new medication since your last eye exam?
What question would you ask at a new patient exam for OcHx? Have you had any eye infections/injuries/surgeries since your last exam?
What question would you ask at a new patient exam for NKDA? Do you have any allergies?
What question would you ask at a new patient exam for CC? What visual difficulties are you experiencing?
What must patients wear for their contact lens follow up? Their contact lenses.
What is the reason for a contact lens follow up? To check the contact lens fit and prescription.
What will be released after a successful contact lens follow up? The prescription.
How long does the patient have to have their prescription released on contact lenses? Up to 45 days after the initial fit.
What tests should be performed for a contact lens follow up? A visual acuity check for both distance and near.
What questions should be asked at a contact lens follow up? MEDS, WTT, AWT, OcHx, CC.
What kind of question should be asked at a contact lens follow up for MEDS? Are you taking any new medications since your first exam?
What kind of question should be asked at a contact lens follow up for WTT? How long have the contact lenses been in today?
What kind of question should be asked at a contact lens follow up for AWT? How long do you wear your contact lenses every day?
What kind of question should be asked at a contact lens follow up for OcHx? How is the comfort and vision?
What kind of question should be asked at a contact lens follow up for CC? Are you having any problems with your contact lenses?
What is the purpose of a contact lens 6 month check? To check contact lenses after the patient has worn them for six months.
What will be evaluated at a contact lens 6 month check? The contact lens fit and prescription.
What must the patient wear at a contact lens 6 month check? The contact lenses.
What kind of questions will you ask at a contact lens 6 month check? The same questions you would ask at a contact lens follow up.
What is the purpose of the TPA exam? For the patient to see the doctor about a complaint, emergency or concern.
What does TPA stand for? Therapeutic Pharmaceutical Agents
What kind of questions will you ask at a TPA exam? CC, NKDA.
What kind of question would you ask for a CC at a TPA exam? When did it start? How does it feel? Is it painful? How long does it last? Have you done anything for it?
What kind of question would you ask for a NKDA at a TPA exam? Are you allergic to any medications?
What should the patient do 24 hours prior to the annual exam? Take out their contact lenses.
What testing should be done during the annual exam? All testing.
What questions should you ask at an annual exam? PMHX, MEDS, OcHx.
What kind of question should you ask for PMHX at an annual exam? Has your medical history changed since your last exam?
What kind of question should you ask for MEDS at an annual exam? Are you currently taking any medication/new medication since your last eye exam?
What kind of question should you ask for OcHx at an annual exam? Have you had any eye infections/injuries/surgeries since your last eye exam?
What are the first three steps before performing the work up? Walk to the reception desk, greet the customer, walk them to the optometric tech room.
How should you start your work up with the patient? Sit directly in front of them and look directly into their eyes.
Where do you document the information from each test? The patient record card.
What does PRC stand for? Patient Record Card
What are the three things the patient record card is classified as? Part of the patient's health history, legal document, and the basis for the Optometrist's final diagnosis.
What tests should you perform for an annual exam? Neutralization of patient's glasses, visual acuity for both near and far, with and without correction, color vision, depth perception, non-contact tonometry, auto-refractor/auto keratometry, FDT, and blood pressure as needed.
What is the other name for the auto refractor? Auto keratometry.
What does NCT stand for? Non-Contact Tonometry
What is the first step in the pretesting for the annual exam? Neutralization of the patient's glasses.
What part of the PRC should you fill out first during the annual eye exam? The preliminary information fields on the left side of the PRC.
What do you neutralize the patient's glasses with? The auto lensometer.
What do you document on the patient's chart after neutralizing the patient's glasses? The type of lenses the patient is currently wearing.
What is the first step in using the Auto Lensometer? Make sure the auto lensometer is plugged in.
What is the second step in using the Auto Lensometer? Verify that there is no lens on the lens support.
What is the third step in using the Auto Lensometer? Turn the power switch ON.
What is the fourth step in using the Auto Lensometer? Verify that (S) blinks and all data items are set at zero.
What mode do you want to set the lensometer to when measuring a single vision lens? Measure Mode.
What position should the glasses be in when neutralizing your patient's glasses? The bottom of the glasses should face the machine with the temples down.
Where should you place the lens when neutralizing the patient's glasses? On the lens support.
How should you move the lens table when neutralizing the patient's lenses? Move the lens table toward you so the bottom of the lenses are touching it.
After neutralizing the right lens, what should you then press to change the setting from right to left? You should press the R/L button.
How should you position the frame? So that the center of the target is in the smallest circle.
When should you press the memory button and store the reading? When the screen reads "Alignment OK".
When measuring multifocal lenses, should you repeat the steps used for the single vision lenses? Yes
When measuring multifocal lenses, after measuring the right lens, what do you press? "Memory" and then the "ADD" button.
What will blink on the screen to tell you that the bottom portion of the multifocal lens is being measured? "ADD"
When measuring the reading portion of the lens, what does the reading portion need to align with? The lens support center.
Is it necessary to achieve perfect lens alignment with the target on the reading portion of the multifocal lens? No.
How do you store the reading on the multifocal lens? Press "memory".
What do you print out after neutralizing the patient's glasses? The read-out slip.
Should the patient read the Snellen chart with glasses, without, or both? Both.
If the patient wears their contacts to an annual eye exam, what should you provide them with? A case and some solution.
Where should the patient stand when facing the far away Snellen Chart? Behind the line marked on the floor.
What is the black instrument used to cover the patient's eyes? The occluder.
If the patient reads a line correctly, what should you ask them to do? Find a line that is more difficult to read.
How many letters can the patient miss before asking them to go up a line? 3
How many inches away should the patient hold the near point chart? 16 inches
What is the small chart called? A near point chart.
What is the purpose of the color vision test? To determine if the patient is color deficient and to see how well their eyes work together.
What is the name of the machine that tests color vision? The Optec 500
What do you push on the Optec 500 to illuminate the far point switch? The near/far button.
What is the display that the tech uses on the Optec 500 called? The electronic display panel
On the Optec 500, what do you push to test the right eye only? The right illumination.
On the Optec 500, what do you do to test the left eye only? Turn off the right illumination and turn on the left illumination.
Which dial do you use to test color-perception? Dial #2
Why should the patient always push their forehead against the visor on the Optec 500? Because the visor controls the lighting on the inside of the display.
How many numbers are in the six circles on the color-perception slide? Eight
What should the patient tell you when testing their color-perception? What numbers they see.
If the patient sees an X inside circle F on the color-perception slide, are they color-deficient? Yes.
If the patient sees nothing in circle F on the color-perception slide, is the patient color-deficient? No.
How many correct answers on the color-perception slide will a patient have to indicate mild color deficiency? 5 out of 8.
What is the color-perception -book- called? The Ishihara Book
What is the first step in testing the patient's color-perception with the Ishihara book? Have them cover their left eye with the occluder.
On the first plate (Ishihara), ask the patient to tell you what number they see in the circle. How many seconds should it take for the patient to answer? Within 3 seconds.
After the patient gets the answer for the first plate (Ishihara) correct, what should you move on to? The next page with the colored circles.
After turning to the second page (Ishihara), the colored circles, what pages should the patient read the numbers on? The right and left pages.
To simplify testing on the Ishihara book, why should you paperclip the pages together? To hide the answers on the back of each page.
How many plates (Ishihara) should you go through with the patient? All 10 plates.
What do you document on the patient's chart after completing the Ishihara color-perception test? How many numbers the patient had correct.
If the doctor requests additional testing on the patient's color-perception after using the Ishihara book, what tests should you move on to? The "trace" tests in the book on plates 11 and 14.
When administering the "trace" tests, what do you ask the patient to do? Ask the patient to place their finger on the "X" located outside of the circle on the left and follow the line from the "X" to the "X" on the right.
What does the Depth Perception Test measure? Binocularity.
What is binocularity? How well the eyes work together.
When can you omit the Depth Perception Test? If the patient has little or no vision in one eye.
What question do you ask the patient during the Depth Perception Test? "Which ring seems to be floating toward you?"
How many targets should you continue through when administering the Depth Perception Test? Through to target #8.
How many targets does the patient need to get right to indicate normal depth perception? 9
How many targets does the patient need to get right to indicate acceptable depth perception? 5
How do you score the depth perception for the patient? If the patient misses two in a row, use the last correct answer as the score.
What does NCT stand for? Non-Contact Tonometer
What is the purpose of the NCT test? To screen the patient's risk for glaucoma.
How does the NCT test work? It measures the pressure inside the eyes using a puff of air.
What should you explain to the patient before administering the NCT test? Explain that they will feel a gentle puff of air, but that it will not hurt.
How do you know the patient's eyes are at the right height for the NCT test? By bringing the edge of the patient's eyes level with the height mark of the chin rest post.
How do you align the pupil for the NCT test? Align the pupil in the center of the square.
What should the patient be looking at during the NCT test? The yellow-green light.
When full alignment is achieved on the NCT, how is the measurement taken? The air will release automatically.
What is the purpose of the auto-refractor? It estimates the refractive error of the eye by measuring the length and curvature of the eye.
Which test helps the doctor perform the refraction more efficiently? The auto-refractor.
What should you tell your patient before using the auto-refractor? Let hem know what it does, that it helps to determine their prescription, and that it will not puff any air into their eyes.
How do you use the auto-refractor? Move the joystick in or out to bring the dot in the center of the big circle into focus.
Will the auto-refractor automatically take a reading once aligned? Yes.
How many measurements per eye should you take on the auto-refractor? 3
If the measurements on the auto-refractor are not similar, what should you do? Take a few more measurements by pushing the button on the top of the joystick to help the machine average the information better.
What does FDT stand for? Frequency Doubling Technology
What is the purpose of the FDT test? It electronically measures retinal function.
The FDT measurement can assist in detecting of many what? Disorders and conditions that can manifest themselves in the eye.
What is the FDT? An automated visual field testing instrument.
Do you put the patient's age in first or last on the FDT machine? First.
What is very important to enter correctly into the FDT machine? The age of the patient.
After you enter the patient's age, you push what on the FDT machine? Accept setting.
Which eye do you start with first on the FDT? The right eye.
How do you skip the right eye on the FDT? Slide the visor to the left eye position and press SKIP RIGHT EYE.
What must the patient stare at during the entire FDT test? The black dot.
Is it ok for the patient to blink during the FDT test? Yes, and the best time is while they are clicking the button.
What should you show the patient to help them understand what they're looking for on the FDT? The FDT quick reference guide.
If the bars are faint during the FDT test, should the patient still press the button? Yes.
How do you being the FDT test? Press the Run Screening Test C-20 button.
How long does the FDT test take per eye? Less than 1 minute per eye.
Do you have to manually print the results of the FDT? No, it happens automatically.
After the patient work up is over, what is the next step? Walk the patient to the waiting area and inform them the doctor will be seeing them shortly.
What should you keep an eye out for after the work up? Keep an eye out for any delays and reassure the patient that they should be seen shortly.
After guiding your patient to the front desk after the work up, what's next? Go to the reception area and greet the next patient.
After seeing each patient, what should you fill out? The Optometric Technician Tracking Log.
What was the first contact lens in history? Glass.
Who first described the concept of a glass contact lens? Leonardo Da Vinci
When did Da Vinci first think of the glass contact lens? The year 1508
When was the glass contact actually produced and fitted? 1888
What was the first all-plastic contact lens? The hard plastic PMMA lens.
When was the hard plastic PMMA contact lens first introduced? The year 1937
How big was the PMMA lens? It covered all of the cornea and much of the sclera, and was very large in diameter.
True or false: The PMMA plastic material is no longer used in contact material today. False
What has PMMA been largely replaced by? Silicone Copolymer
What advantage does the silicone copolymer lens over the PMMA? It is more oxygen transmissible.
Why is the lens being more oxygen transmissible better for the contact lens wearer? It is more comfortable for the patient.
When was hard plastic CAB first utilized as a contact lens material? 1974
What does CAB stand for? Cellulose Acetate Butyrate
The hard plastic CAB allowed for increased comfort for the wearer, resulting in what? Longer wearing time.
When were the CAB lenses FDA approved? The year 1979
Bausch and Lomb was the first company to introduce what? Soft contact lens material approved by the FDA in the USA.
Which contact lens material allows for exceptional comfort and a more rapid adjustment period to the contact lens wearer? Soft lens material.
What does HEMA stand for? Hydroxyethylmethacrylate
What is HEMA? A soft contact lens material that contains a high amount of water.
Why does HEMA's high water content aid provide so much comfort to the wearer? It allows for much greater oxygen transmissibility.
What is the disadvantage to having a HEMA material soft contact lens? The life span is shorter than that of a hard contact because it is more susceptible to protein build-up.
What is the central portion of the back surface of a contact lens? The base curve.
What is the base curve also referred to as? The Central Posterior Curve (CPC) or Primary Base Curve.
The base curve can be measured in millimeters and what else? Diopters of power.
What is it called when the two curves of the lens are smoothed by removing the sharp line between the two curves? Blend
What is the separation at the geometric center of the lens, between the anterior (front) and posterior (back) surfaces of the lens called? Center thickness.
Which contact lenses will tend to have a thicker center? Plus lenses will tend to have a thicker center than minus lenses.
What is the most common lens design for rigid and gas permeable contact lenses? Corneal lens design.
What does the corneal lens design cover? The entire cornea.
What are daily wear contacts? Lenses worn on a daily basis no more than 14-16 hours a day, and must be removed/cleaned every day.
What is the definition of diameter? The length of measurement from one edge of the lens to the other.
What are disposable contacts? Lenses made to be worn for a specific period of time, from a few days to two weeks, and then discarded.
What are daily disposable contacts? Lenses made to be worn for one day and then thrown away.
What are extended wear/flexible wear contacts? Lenses that can be worn for several days in a row before removing or cleaning them. They can also be worn intermittently.
What are extended wear/flexible wear contacts also called? Prolonged Wear lenses, or Flexi wear.
What does FRP stand for? Frequent Replacement Program
What are FRP lenses? Lenses that can be worn daily or on a flexible wear schedule and have to be replaced every 1 to 3 months.
What does GPC stand for? Giant Papillary Conjunctivitis.
How does someone contract GPC? By having poor cleaning habits, and it's usually associated with soft contact wearers.
What are the signs of GPC? Small elevations (papillae) on the inside of the eyelid. Swelling of the eyelids and red, irritated eyes.
What is the treatment for GPC? Medicated eye drops and the termination of any contact lens wearing for up to 3 months.
What are Rigid Gas Permeable lenses? Lenses that allow the carbon dioxide and oxygen through the lens. Also, rigid lens material.
Why type of contact lens contains a central optic zone surrounded by a non-optic peripheral portion? A lenticular lens.
What is the lenticular lens usually used for? Extreme hyperopes and/or people with large, flat eyes.
What does rigid lens materials usually refer to? Contact lens materials which are not "bendable", like hard contacts and RGP.
What's the definition of protein build-up? The accumulation of hard protein deposits on a soft contact lens. This can cause discomfort and GPC. and reduces the life of the contact lens. This can be removed by regular enzymatic cleaning.
What is a secondary curve? A flatter curve on the outside edge of an RGP contact lens.
What kind of lens is the secondary curve present in? Bicurve and tricurve hard lenses. It is prescribed to improve the fit of an RGP and is usually blended.
What is the optical zone? The central portion of a contact lens containing the refractive power.
What is a semi-scleral lens design? Covers the entire cornea and partially extends into the conjunctiva tissue overlying the sclera.
Which lenses are used to correct astigmatism? Toric lenses.
What are the three types of toric lenses? Bi-toric, front surface toric, and back surface toric.
How do you get a spherical prescription? Divide the cylinder power by 2, then add the cylinder power to the sphere power and eliminate the axis.
What is the spherical equivalent? A compound lens prescription that is converted to a spherical prescription.
Who decides the type of contact lens for the patient? The patient and the doctor.
The lens with two curvatures at right angles to each other on the same side of the lens is which lens? A toric lens.
Who is the toric lens prescribed to? Patients with a very high astigmatism (.75D or higher)
Different toric lenses are prescribed depending on the patient's what? The patient's astigmatism and the location of it in the eye.
The toric requires the addition of what in the prescription? A toric requires the addition of a cylinder in the prescription to accommodate for the patient's astigmatism.
Sometimes markings will be on what lens to help the patient determine how it is oriented on the cornea? A toric lens.
What part of the population is starting to choose contact lenses as part of their presbyopic eyewear more and more? The "baby boomers" moving into their 40's and 50's.
Bifocal contact lenses can be divided into what two categories? Concentric and Segment.
Concentric Bifocal contacts are also known as what? Target Bifocals.
How are concentric bifocal contacts designed? With the distance prescription in the center portion of the lens and the near vision prescription on the outer edge.
Why are concentric bifocal contacts designed with rings of power? To provide "simultaneous vision".
How do concentric bifocal lenses work? They provide simultaneous vision which requires the eyes to look through both distance/near and learn to select the appropriate power depending on what they are looking at.
What two types of simultaneous vision lenses are there? Concentric ring design, and aspheric design.
How do the rings of concentric bifocal contact lenses alternate? Between near and distance prescriptions with at least two rings in the pupil area.
What materials can the concentric bifocal contacts be made of? Soft or RGP.
Do concentric bifocal contact lenses vary on where the rings are located? Yes.
For rigid designs of concentric bifocal contact lenses, where is the distance power? In the center ("Center Distance")
For soft designs of concentric bifocal contact lenses, where is the near power? In the center (center-near). Some are center-near on the patient's dominant eye and center-distance on the non-dominant eye.
What are segment bifocals also called? Translating or Alternating Lenses.
Is the segment bifocal usually made of soft contact material? No, it is usually made of RGP material.
Which bifocal contact lens is similar to a spectacle bifocal in that the distance is at the top and the near vision at the bottom? The segment bifocal contact lens.
What shape can the segment bifocal contact near vision be? Crescent shaped, a circle, or a flat top.
Which provides better near vision: Concentric designs or segment designs? Segment designs.
Is the segment lens comfortable for the wearer? It is somewhat uncomfortable because the lower part of the lens rests on the lower eyelid causing greater awareness.
What two types of contact lenses require great care to make sure the lenses are properly stabilized? Toric and segment contact lenses.
What are the four components to a contact lens prescription? Base Curve (B.C.), Power, Diameter (DIA), and the recommended brand name.
The base curve indicates the central curve on what side of the contact lens? On the concave (backside) of the contact lens.
What is the base curve designed to conform to? The wearer's cornea.
The power refers collectively to what? The sphere, cylinder and axis prescribed by the doctor.
Do hard or soft lenses have a smaller diameter? Hard lenses have a smaller diameter than soft lenses.
For a legally complete prescription, what must it have? A doctor's signature and prescription expiration date.
Rules regarding what vary from state to state? Regarding prescription expiration date.
Who should you check with regarding the prescription expiration process in your state? The doctor.
What other variables might be indicated on the contact prescription depending on the lens? Bicurve measurements, tricurve measurements, toric design, center thickness, optical zone, and blend.
Why would a bicurve or tricurve measurement be prescribed? To improve the fit of the contact lens.
If the toric lens must be ground into both surfaces, what will the doctor indicate it as? A bitoric lens.
What kind of prescription will you see for a front toric lens? One base curve, sphere power with cylinder and axis.
What kind of prescription will you see for a back toric lens? Two base curves, one power.
What kind of prescription will you see for a bitoric lens? Two base curves, two powers.
Why would a doctor indicate a specific center thickness in a lens? Many reasons, among them the doctor might increase the center thickness because the lens might have a tendency to warp, or he might decrease it because it is a high plus lens.
What is a simpler definition for blending? The smoothing of the junctions between two curves.
If not handled properly, are hard contact lenses prone to breaking? Yes
What is the first and most important step before handling contact lenses? Wash your hands.
Oil, debris and bacteria on your hands can be transferred where? To the contact lenses and then directly to the eye.
Before inserting a soft lens, and putting the contact on the tip of your finger, what shape should it be in? When looking at it parallel with your line of vision, it should be in the shape of a cup.
If the edges of the lens are curved outward when placed on the tip of your finger, is it in the right shape? No
What does I&R stand for? Insertion and Removal
How can you put a first time contact lens wearer more at ease? Reassure them that insertion and removal takes time and practice for most people.
What are the first three steps of insertion? Tell the customer to look straight ahead, pull their lower eyelid down with the middle finger of their inserting hand, and keep their elbows out.
After the initial three steps of insertion, what should you instruct the patient to do next? Have the patient bring their index finger close to their eye until they touch the lower edge of the lens. Have them barely touch their eye with their finger. The lens will adhere when their finger pulls away.
What are the first three steps of removal? Have the patient look straight ahead, and pull down their lower lid with the middle finger of their inserting hand. Have them keep their elbows out.
After the first three steps of removal, what should you instruct the patient to do next? Have them slide the lens down to the lower white part of their eye, and have them gently squeeze the lens between their thumb and index finger and remove it from the eye.
What are the first three steps to rigid lens removal? Have the patient look straight ahead, pull down their lower eyelid with the middle finger of their inserting hand and keep their elbows out
After the first three steps of rigid lens removal, what should you instruct your patient to do next? Make sure the patient's lens is centered correctly in front of their eye. Have the patient pull the corner of their eyelids to make them tight. Have the customer place their opposite hand under their eye to catch the lens.
What is the last step to rigid lens removal? Have the patient quickly blink.
Rigid lenses are inherently hydrophobic, which means what? They naturally repel water.
Even though rigid lenses are hydrophobic, what can help them to improve the wettability of the lens? Wetting solutions which help tears spread uniformly over the lens surface, which can prevent oils and debris from being transferred from the finger to the lens.
How do you store a rigid lens? They should be stored in a solution which helps clean the lens and keep it wet. This will reduce the possibility of contaminating the lens surface. The solution needs to be changed daily and is not meant to replace a wetting solution.
What do cleaning solutions clean off of the lens? Oils, debris, and cosmetics.
When cleaning a rigid lens, the patient should remove their lens and place it where? In the palm of their hand.
How many seconds should the patient rub the cleaning solution on their rigid lens for? 20 seconds.
How many drops of cleaner does the patient need to clean their rigid lens? 2-4
Should the patient rub one or both sides of their rigid lens with the cleaning solution? Both
After using the daily cleaner on their rigid lens, the patient should rinse thoroughly with what? Fresh tap water.
What is the last step to storing a rigid lens? Placing the lens in storage solution and letting the lens soak for at least 4 hours before wearing.
What kinds of soft contact lens solutions are there? Daily cleaners, disinfecting solutions, rinsing solutions, enzymatic cleaners.
What is a daily cleaner? Removes the accumulation of dirt and debris and should be used on a daily basis.
What is a disinfecting solution? Used to kill common pathogenic organisms. It does not kill nonpathogenic organisms, but is adequate for soft contact lens wearers.
What is a rinsing solution? Rinses the lens and is either saline or part of an all-in-one solution which also disinfects.
What is an enzymatic cleaner? It removes protein build-up that daily cleaners and disinfecting solutions cannot. Should be used on a weekly basis.
What are lubricating and rewetting drops? Drops used while lenses are in the eye, and can alleviate discomfort caused by environmental factors.
What do lubricating and rewetting drops do? Lubricate and rehydrate to prevent film build-up on soft lenses.
What is a hydrogen peroxide lens solution? This is a cleaning solution that gradually replaced heat disinfecting in the 70's and 80's. It does not yellow the lenses like heat disinfecting did which increases the life of the lens.
What are the three basic steps to the hydrogen peroxide solution? Clean using a daily cleaner, disinfect with a hydrogen peroxide based solution, and neutralize the hydrogen peroxide solution.
What is one of the benefits of a hydrogen peroxide solution? It is more easily accepted by individuals who are unable to use chemical systems due to eye irritation.
What should the patient first do to cleanse their lenses with a hydrogen peroxide solution? Rub the lens with 2-4 drops of the solution for 20 seconds.
What should the patient thoroughly rinse their lens with after cleansing with a hydrogen peroxide solution? A saline solution.
After the patient rinses their contact with saline solution after cleansing with a hydrogen peroxide cleaner, what should the patient do? Put the lens into a disinfecting solution and drop a neutralizing tablet into the lens container.
How long should the lenses soak after cleaning with a hydrogen peroxide solution? 2 hours before wearing.
What should the patient add to their lens container once a week when using the hydrogen peroxide cleanser? An enzyme tablet.
Why did cold chemical solutions increase in popularity in the 1980's? They were less expensive than hydrogen peroxide systems, and less complicated than hydrogen peroxide systems.
When using a cold chemical cleaning solution, how many drops should the patient use to clean the lens and how long should they rub the lens? 2-4 drops for 20 seconds.
What should the customer rinse their lens with after using a cold chemical solution? A multi-purpose solution.
What should the customer store their lenses in after cleansing them with a cold chemical cleanser? Multi-purpose solution. The patient should then put a neutralizing tablet into the lens container. The lenses should soak for a minimum of 2 hours.
In the 1980's, what new type of cold chemical solution emerged and became slowly more popular? The cold chemical system that has the added benefit of only needing to soak the lenses for five minutes before wearing them.
What is the definition of amblyopia? "Lazy eye", an eye condition that occurs in children. One eye has poorer vision than the other, and if left untreated, their vision will not develop correctly eventually leaving one eye with poor vision.
How can amblyopia be treated? If caught early enough, patches can be used to strengthen the weak eye.
What is the definition of binocular vision? The simultaneous use of both eyes.
What is the definition of binocularity? The ability to use both eyes as a team and unite two visual images into one, 3-D image.
What is the definition of blepharitis? Crusting around the eyes upon wakening, itching, burning, swollen eyelids and mucous.
What is the definition of blurred vision? Lack of visual clarity or acuity.
What is the definition of cataract? This is a condition of the crystalline lens, where the lens becomes clouded/yellowed causing blurred/foggy vision.
What is cataracts caused by? It can be caused by aging, eye injuries, disease, heredity, or birth defects.
How are cataracts treated? Surgery is one option, removing the lens and replacing it with an implant lens.
What is the definition of color vision deficiency? The absence of or defect in the perception of colors.
What is color vision based on? The perception of red, green, and blue.
If a person is color deficient, how will they perceive colors? If there is a defect in the perception of one of these colors, a color will be perceived as the blending of the two other colors.
What kind of color deficiency can a person suffer from? Red, green or blue color deficiency.
What is the definition of computer vision syndrome? Eye and vision problems related to near work that are related to computer use.
What are the symptoms of computer vision syndrome? Eyestrain, dry or burning eyes, blurred vision, headaches, double vision, distorted color vision, and neck and backaches.
What does CVS stand for? Computer Vision Syndrome
What are some of the treatment options for CVS? Prescription glasses with antireflective coating and/or vision therapy.
Is the cornea a tissue that has blood in it? No.
What is the definition of conjunctivitis? Inflammation of the conjunctiva, the transparent layer covering the inner eyelid and the sclera.
What is conjunctivitis caused by? It can be caused by a virus, bacteria, fungus or allergy and can be contagious.
What are some of the symptoms of conjunctivitis? Red or watery eyes, blurred vision, inflamed inner eyelids, scratchiness in the eyes, or (with infectious conjunctivitis) a puss-like or watery discharge and matted eyelids.
How is conjunctivitis treated? With antibiotic eye drops and/or ointment that is appropriate for the underlying cause. Antibiotics, antihistamines, antivirals or antifungals.
What is the definition of a corneal ulcer? A wound in the surface of the eye caused by injury, infection, or dryness due to lack of tear production.
What is the definition of depth perception? The ability to judge relative distances of objects.
What is the definition of diabetic retinopathy? Leaking of retinal blood vessels in advanced or long-term diabetes, affecting the macula or retina. Vision can be seriously distorted or blurred.
What is the definition of diplopia? When a single object is perceived as two; double vision. A sudden onset of diplopia in adults is unusual and requires in-depth examination.
What is the definition of a dominant eye? The eye that "leads" its partner during eye movements.
What is the definition of dry eye? Inadequate tear gland function or certain environments cause large amounts of evaporation of the tear film. Dry eyes make contact lens wear more difficult.
What is the definition of floaters? Also called "spots", they are usually clouded or semi-opaque specks or particles within the eye that are seen in the field of vision.
Are floaters normal? Most often, yes. The fluid in the eye supplies the eye with nutrition and aids in focusing light. If some particles are close together or large, they cast shadows creating floaters.
When are floaters not normal? When it is caused by certain injuries, eye disease, or deterioration of the eye fluid or its surrounding structures.
What is the definition of a foreign body? Any foreign particle that is embedded into the cornea. This can be serious if not removed/treated.
What is the definition of glaucoma? A disease characterized by excessive fluid in the eye, high intraocular pressure and vision impairment. Blindness can result.
What is the definition of intraocular lens? This is the artificial lens that a cataract surgeon places in a patient's eye after removing the eyes natural lens.
What does IOL stand for? Intraocular Lens
True or false: The intraocular lens has refractive power tailored specifically to the patient's visual condition. True
What is the definition of iritis? Inflammation of the iris. It can be very painful and can be caused by systemic disease or injury.
What is the definition of keratitis? Inflammation of the cornea.
What is the definition of keratoconus? A condition where the cornea develops a cone-shaped bulge that can result in major blurring and distortion.
What does LASIK stand for? Laser Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis
What is LASIK? A surgical procedure where a flap is cut in the top of the cornea, and corneal tissue is removed from the underlying layer with an excimer laser, then the flap is put back.
What does LASIK correct? Myopia and Hyperopia.
What is the definition of Low Vision? Sight that cannot be satisfactorily corrected with glasses, contacts or surgery.
Why does low vision usually occur? It usually is due to eye disease like glaucoma or macular degeneration.
What is the definition of the macula? This is the most sensitive part of the retina. It's about the size of a pin head and is where our most detailed vision occurs.
What is the definition of macular degeneration? A deterioration of the central portion of the retina known as the macula.
What is the definition of a migraine? (Ocular) Visual phenomena that can accompany a migraine headache or that might occur without any headache.
What are the symptoms of a migraine? Light flashes, spots, wavy lines, flickers, zig-zagging lights, semi-circular or crescent-shaped visual defects and distortions of shapes.
What is the definition of monocular vision? Useful vision in only one eye.
What is the definition of peripheral vision? The ability to see or be aware of what is surrounding us, our side vision.
What is the definition of red eye? A condition of the eye that causes it to appear red.
What should patients avoid doing if they have red eyes? They should not wear contact lenses if their eyes are red and should be seen by the doctor asap.
What can red eye be due to? It can be due to infection, inflammation, a poor contact lens fit, or allergies.
What is the definition of a retinal detachment? This is a condition where the retina separates from the choroid. People with high minus prescriptions are at greater risk for this condition.
What is the definition of strabismus? "Crossed eyes", it is a muscle or refractive imbalance that prevents normal binocular vision.
How can strabismus be corrected? With the use of prism, vision therapy, or surgery to help with visual acuity or the cosmetic appearance of the eye.
What is the definition of a stye? A blocked gland at the edge of the lid which has become infected by bacteria.
What is the definition of a subconjuctival hemorrhage? This is a blood spot on the eye.
What is the reason for a subconjunctival hemorrhage? It occurs when a small blood vessel under the conjunctiva breaks and bleeds.
What is the cause of a subconjunctival hemorrhage? It is a common condition caused by coughing, heavy lifting, or vomiting. It can also develop following eye surgery or trauma.
Created by: musicalprotege1
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