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NURS 2220 Pharma

pharmacology exam #1

Five rights of medication administration 1. Right Patient 2. Right Medication 3. Right Dosage 4. Right Route 5. Right Time
Common assessments before giving meds breathing, pain level, LOC, BP, HR
Additional considerations related to myocardial cellular environment oxygenation, acid-base balance, electrolyte levels. Correct as necessary
Patient/Family teaching related to medications therapeutic effects, potential adverse effects, when to call physician, how to take medication
Analgesics - Why are they given? Pain, fever, anti-inflammatory
Non-opiod analgesics act peripherally, do not cause CNS depression. Includes aspirin, acetaminophen.
Nursing considerations for non-opioid analgesics Assess pain level/temp before and after administration. Do not give children aspirin. Be aware of dosage as aspirin or acetaminophen is often found in other products. Watch for GI upset, bleeding.
NSAIDs anti-inflammatory agents that work on COX-1 and COX-2 sites. Includes ibuprofen, celecoxib, Ketorlac (toradol).
Nursing considerations for NSAIDs May cause kidney strain. Take with food. Ibuprofen is particularly effective on smooth muscle.
Opiod analgesics Depress the central nervous system. Includes codine, morphine, meperidine, hydromorphone, fentanyl.
Nursing considerations for opioid analgesics Assess pain level before and after administration. Peak onset IV - 20 min. Peak onset oral 60-120 min. IV: dilute? push rate? compatability? Assess for signs of respiratory depression, constipation, hypotension.
Anti-infectives destroys microorganisms or inhibits their growth. May be bacteriostatic/bacteriocidal, antifungal, antuviral
Bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal anti-infectives penicillin, cephalosporin, tetracycline, macrolides, sulonamides, quinolones.
Anti-fungal anti-infectives Amphotocerin B, fluconazole
Anti-viral anti-infectives Antiviral, protease inhibitor, nucleotide and nonnucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor
Nursing considerations for anti-infectives allergies, adverse effects, watch for exacerbation of other conditions, lab values (WBC, platelets, kidney function), assess for signs of infection
Anti-thrombolitic prevention of blood clots through destruction or inactivation of platelets Includes antiplatelets, anticoagulants and fibrinolytic.
Antiplatelet anti-thrombolitics Destroys or inactivates platelets, preventing them from forming blood clots. Includes aspirin, clopigodel, dipyridamole
Anticoagulant anti-thrombolitics prevents or delays blood clot formation. Includes heparin, warfarin.
Fibrinolytic anti-thrombolitics breaks down the fibrin in blood clots. often used to break of clots in IV lines Includes TNK, T-Pa, streptokinase, urokinase.
Nursing considerations for anti-thrombolitics Look for signs of bleeding, DVT, A-fib. Consider lab values (INR - coumadin, PPT - heparin, platelets, lipids)
Immune modifiers decreases or inactivates immune response or treat inflammatory response. Includes immunosuppressants and corticosteroids.
Immunosuppressants often used after organ transplants, bone marrow transplants. Includes cyclosporine, tacrolimus, cell cept.
Corticosteroids steroid hormone used to treat inflammatory response. includes prednisone, solu-medrol, solu-cortef
Nursing considerations for immunosuppressants lab values (blood counts, glucose levels), watch for adverse effects, do not discontinue rapidly, a
Considerations for pediatric patients parent education, compliance, dosage by weight, delayed gastric emptying, faster drug metabolism, route (IM injection not recommended for infants), thin skin may affect absorption rate of topical meds, may require creative techniques for compliance
Considerations for geriatric patients decreased lean body mass, decreased body fat, decreased water in the body, decreased metabolism, decreased kidney and/or liver function all affect rate of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion.
Created by: pinklrt98