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A&P 1 chp 2-3

A&P1 test on chapters 2-3 for DelTech Owens campus

What is matter? Anything that has mass and takes up space.
What are the 3 states of matter? Solid, liquid, gaseous
What are some examples of matter in the body in its solid state? Teeth, bones.
What are some examples of matter in the body in its liquid state? Blood plasma, water.
What are some examples of matter in the body in its gaseous state? Oxygen, carbon dioxide.
What are elements? Unique substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substance by ordinary chemical means.
What are some examples of elements? Oxygen, gold, silver, carbon, iron, copper.
Which 4 elements make up most of our bodies? Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen. (CHON, or "Chone.")
What percent of our bodies are made from carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen? 96%
What are physical properties? Properties we can detect or measure.
What are chemical properties? Properties that account for the interaction or bonding behavior of atoms.
Each element is designated by a one or two letter chemical shorthand known as an __. Atomic symbol.
What charge does a proton, a neutron, and an electron have? Protons are positive Neutrons are neutral Electrons are negative
What is the mass of a proton or neutron? 1 atomic mass unit, or 1 amu.
What is the mass of an electron? It actually about 1/2000 of an amu, but it is designated as 0 amu.
What does amu stand for? Atomic mass unit.
What is an atom's atomic number? It's atomic number is equal to the number of protons in its nucleus.
The number of an atom's protons is always equal to the number of its __. Electrons. Hence, it's atomic number always tells us indirectly how many electrons it has as well as how many protons it has.
What is an atom's mass number? The sum of the masses of its protons and neutrons.
What is an isotope? A structural variation of an element which has the same number of protons as the element but a different number of neutrons.
Where can you find an atom's atomic number written in relation to its atomic symbol? It is written as a subscript to the left of its atomic symbol.
Where can you find an atom's mass number written in relation to its atomic symbol? It is written as a superscript to the left of it's atomic symbol, placing it right above its atomic number.
What is an atom's atomic weight? It is the average of the relative mass numbers of ALL the isotopes of an element.
As a rule, the atomic weight of an element is approximately equal to the mass number of its __ __ __. most abundant isotope
What is a molecule? A combination of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
What is a compound? When two or more DIFFERENT kinds of atoms bind together. Water (H2O) and methane (CH4) are examples of two different kinds of atoms that are bound together to form a single molecule.
Compounds are chemically __ and all of their molecules are __. pure identical
Name the 3 major types of chemical bonds. covalent, hydrogen, ionic (CHI or "Chee".) NOTE: in this order, these bonds are strong, weak, strong.
What is an ionic bond? A chemical bond between atoms formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to the other.
What is a covalent bond? Electron sharing produces molecules in which the shared electrons occupy a single orbital common to both atoms. (Think current and covalent.)
What is a hydrogen bond? Weak bonds that are more like attractions than true bonds. They form when a hydrogen atom is attracted to another electron-hungry atom, forming more of a bridge than a real bond between them.
What are organic compounds? Molecules unique to living systems that contain carbon.
What are inorganic compounds? Compounds that (usually) lack carbon. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide are 2 of the exceptions to this rule.
What are carbohydrates? A group of molecules that include sugars and starches. They provide fuel for the body once they are converted to ATP.
What are lipids? Lipids are fats and oils in the body.
What do lipids and carbohydrates have in common? They contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, though in different proportions.
What are proteins? Long chains of amino acids.
What do proteins do for the body? They are the basic structural material in the body.
How much of our cell mass consists of protein? 10-30%
What are the largest molecules in the body? Nucleic acids
What 2 kinds of nucleic acids are present in the body? DNA, RNA
Where can DNA be found in the cell? The nucleus.
What are DNA's two fundamental roles? Replication and protein synthesis. In other words, reproduction and providing instructions for building proteins in the body.
Where can RNA be found in the cell? RNA is located chiefly outside the nucleus.
What is the molecular slave of DNA? RNA
What does RNA do in the body? It carries out the orders for protein synthesis issued by DNA.
T or F: In DNA, the complementary bases of A and T always bond together? True
T or F: In DNA, the complementary bases of C and G always bond together? True
T or F: A-T and C-G are found in both DNA and RNA. False
Which complementary bond cannot be found in RNA but can be found in DNA? A-T RNA uses U (uracil) instead of T.
What is another difference between DNA and RNA? (HINT: sugar) DNA uses deoxyribose sugar, while RNA uses ribose sugar.
What are the 3 major varieties of RNA? mRNA (Messenger RNA) tRNA (Transport RNA) rRNA (Ribosomal RNA)
What does ATP stand for? adenosine triphosphate
What does ATP do in the body? Provides energy for cells. It is immediately usable.
A __ is the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms. cell
The activity of the organism depends on both the individual and the collective activities of its __. cells
What is the principle of the complementarity of structure and function as it pertains to cells? The biochemical activities of cells are dictated by their shapes, forms, and relative number of their specific subcellular structures.
Continuity of life from one generation to another has a __ basis. cellular
What are the 3 main parts of a cell? Plasma membrane (also called the cell membrane). Cytoplasm. Nucleus. PCN ("Pickin")
What is the plasma membrane? The outer boundary of the cell.
What is the cytoplasm? The fluid inside the cell, packed with organelles.
What is the nucleus? An organelle that controls activities inside the cell.
What are organelles? Small structures inside the cells that perform specific cell functions. They are the metabolic machinery of the cell.
What does the plasma membrane do? Defines the extent of the cell and separates its interior from the outside.
What is the lipid bilayer? The basic "fabric" of the plasma membrane.
What is the plasma membrane made from? Mostly phospholipids, with smaller amounts of glycolipids, cholesterol, and areas called lipid rafts. (PGCLr, or Pig-clear.)
The plasma membrane has a consistency similar to __ ___. Olive oil.
The glycolax is ? The fuzzy, sticky, carbohydrate-rich area at the cell surface.
What does the word glycolax literally mean? Sugar covering.
What does the glycolax do? It provides specific markers that allow approaching cells to recognize each other.
What are tight junctions? A series of integral protein molecules in the plasma membranes of adjacent cells that fuse together forming an impermeable junction that encircles the cell. REMEMBER that tight junctions are mostly impermeable and encircle the cell which has them.
Where can cells with tight junctions be found in the body? The epithelial cells that line the digestive tract to keep enzymes and microorganisms from seeping into the blood stream.
What is a gap junction? It's a communicating junction between adjacent cells.
What connects gap junctions together? Connexons.
Where can cells with gap junctions be found in the body? They are present in electrically excitable tissues, like the heart or smooth muscle tissues.
What is simple diffusion? Passive movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to low concentration.
What is facilitated diffusion? Active movement of molecules from areas of low concentration to low concentration. Facilitated diffusion requires energy.
What is osmosis? The diffusion of a solvent, such as water, through a selectively permeable membrane.
What are the 3 kinds of diffusion? Facilitated, osmosis, and simple. FOS ("Fose")
What requires carrier proteins that combine specifically and reversibly with the transported substances? Active transport.
What does the word cytoplasm literally mean? Cell-forming material.
What is the cytoplasm? The gel-like material between the plasma membrane and the nucleus.
What is the cytosol? The viscous, semitransparent fluid in which the other cytoplasmic elements are suspended.
What are mitochondria? The power plants of the cell, providing most its ATP supply. They are thread-like, lozenge shaped membranous organelles that squirm and change shape almost continuously.
What are ribosomes? Sites of protein synthesis. They are small, dark-staining granules made of proteins and RNAs called ribosomal RNAs.
What is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)? An extensive system of interconnected tubes and parallel membranes enclosing fluid filled cavities, or cisterns.
What does the term endoplasmic reticulum literally mean? Network within the cytoplasm.
How many kinds of endoplasmic reticulum are there? 2
What is the rough endoplasmic reticulum? It's ribosomes manufacture all proteins secreted from cells. It also manufactures the lipids and proteins that make up the plasma membrane.
Why is the rough endoplasmic reticulum rough? Its surface is studded with ribosomes.
What is the smooth endoplasmic reticulum? It is continuous with the rough ER and consists of tubules arranged in a looping network. It's enzymes play no role in protein synthesis, but they catalyze reactions involved in various tasks.
What is the golgi apparatus? It modifies, concentrates, and packages the proteins and lipids made in the rough ER that get exported, or "shipped", out of the cell.
What is the most important function of peroxisomes? They neutralize free radicals.
Lysosomes function as the cells __. Demolition crew. They digest particles that don't belong in the cell.
What does cytoskeleton literally mean? Cell skeleton.
What are the 3 types of rods in the cytoskeleton? microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules.
The cytoskeleton acts as the cells __, __, and __. Bones, muscles, and ligaments.
What are cilia? Whiplike, motile cellular extensions on the surface of certain cells that move molecules.
What does cilia literally mean? Eyelashes.
What is the flagella? Larger versions of cilia that move the entire cell.
What is the only cell in the human body with a flagella? A sperm.
What does the word microvilli literally mean? Little shaggy hairs.
What are microvilli? Minute, finger-like extensions of the plasma membrane that project from the cell surface.
What kind of cells usually possess microvilli? Absorptive cells, such as intestinal and kidney cells.
What are the only cells in the body that don't have at least one nucleus? Mature red blood cells.
What is the largest organelle in the cell? The nucleus.
What are the 3 recognizable regions or structures of the nucleus? Nuclear envelope (the membrane), nucleoli, and chromatin.
What is the cell cycle? The series of changes a cell goes through from the time it is formed until it reproduces.
What must happen before a cell can divide? It's DNA must be replicated exactly so identical copies of the cell's genes can be passes on to each of its offspring.
Why is the replication of DNA called semiconservative replication? Because each new molecule consists of one old and one new strand that forms the DNA helix.
DNA serves as the master blueprint for __ __. Protein synthesis.
Each sequence of three bases, found in RNA and DNA, are called what? A triplet.
What is a gene? A segment of a DNA molecule that carries instructions for creating one polypeptide chain.
If a letter from a base pair is a letter, and a triplet is word, then what could be called the sentence of DNA? The sequence of triplets in each gene that tells exactly how a particular polypeptide is to be made.
How many DNA triplets form an amino acid? 1
Where are most polypeptides manufactured? Ribosomes.
What cell functions are carried out by RNA? Decoding and messenger functions.
mRNA does what? It carries a transcript of the DNA code to the cytoplasm, where protein synthesis occurs. It is known as messenger RNA.
rRNA does what? It, along with proteins, forms the ribosomes. It is called ribosome RNA. Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis.
tRNA does what? Ferries amino acids to the ribosomes. It is also called transfer RNA.
What is transcription as it relates to the cell? The transferal of information from a DNA base sequence to the complementary base sequence of an mRNA molecule.
Once mRNA is made, what happens next? It detaches and leaves the nucleus via a nuclear pore and heads for the ribosome. This is where protein synthesis happens.
What is translation? The translation of nuclear acids into the language of proteins. (Conversion from a base sequence to an amino acid sequence.)
What is the genetic code? The rules by which the base sequence of a gene is translated into an amino acid sequence.
For each DNA triplet, the corresponding three-base sequence of mRNA is called a __. Codon.
How many possible codons are there? 64
How many of these codons are "stop signs" that signal the termination of polypeptide synthesis? 3
Created by: IsaacJ