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Ab Psych Chapter 3

Abnormal Psychology Clinical and Scientific Perspective by Lyons and Martin

Unconscious In psychoanalytic theory , that part of the mind outside of conscious awareness, containing hidden instincts, impulses, and memories
Oedipal Conflict In Freudian theory, the erotic attachment to opposite-sex parent, involving feelings of competition and hostility toward same-sex parent, and fears of retaliation(castration anxiety in boys) from the same-sex parent.
Defense Mechanisms In Freudian theory, strategies whereby a person avoids anxiety-arousing experiences
Repression Defense Mechanism in which the anxiety-arousing memory or impulse is prevented form becoming conscious
Reaction Formation Defense mechanism in which a person behaves in a way directly opposite form some underlying impulse.
Isolation Defense mechanism in which person separates emotions from intellectual content, or otherwise separates experiences that would be anxiety arousing if permitted to occur together.
Displacement Defense mechanism in which the person shifts a reaction from some original target person or situation (e.g. anger displaced from boss to family)
Projection Defense mechanism in which the person disowns some impulse and attributes it to another person
Intrapsychic Refers to unobservable mental events such as ideas, wishes, and unconscious.
id In Freudian theory, that part of the mind form which instinctual impulses originate
ego In Freudian theory, that part of the mind that mediates between id impulses and external reality
superego In Freudian theory, the internalized representative of parental or cultural values
libido Psychoanalytic concept referring to the sexual instincts
Fixations In Freudian theory,refers to an unusual investment of libidinal energy at a certain psychosexual stage
Regressions In Freudian theory, refers to a return to some earlier stage of psychosexual development in the face of some current frustration.
Phobia Strong, irrational fear of some specific object, animal, or situation.
Free association Basic procedure in psychoanalysis in which the patient is asked to say whatever comes to mind without censorship
Resistance In psychoanalysis, the phenomenon in which patients unconsciously resist gaining insight into unconscious motives and conflicts.
Transference Irrational emotional reaction of patient to the therapist(usually in psychoanalysis) in which early attitudes toward parents are "transferred" to the therapist.
Behaviorism An approach to understanding behavior that emphasizes the relation between observable behavior and specifiable environmental events (or stimuli)
Reinforcement Consequence following a response that increases the likelihood that, in the same situation, the response will be repeated in the future.
Primary Reinforcers Events, usually biological in nature, that almost always provide reinforcement, such as eating when hungry; primary reinforcers do not acquire their reinforcing properties through learning.
Punishers Types of consequences that weaken or suppress the behaviors that produce them.
Positive Reinforcement The contingent presentation of a pleasant result, which strengthens subsequent responding
Negative Reinforcement The contingent removal of a unpleasant stimulus, which strengthens subsequent responding
Discriminative stimulus A stimulus that serves as a signal that a certain response will lead to a reinforcement
Reversal Design Experimental design in which new reinforcement contingencies are instated for a period of time, followed by reinstatement of the old reinforcement contingencies, and finally the installment of the original, new contingencies; sometimes a fourth reversal i
Modeling Teaching a behavior by performing the behavior and having the learner imitate it
Systematic Desensitization A counterconditioning procedure in which subjects are exposed to a gradually stronger anxiety-producing stimuli while maintaining a state of relaxation
Covert sensitization Form of behavior therapy in which the person is asked to imagine an upsetting scene in order to produce a form of aversion conditioning.
Chromosomes In human cells, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes, elongated bodies that carry genetic information.
Genes Units of hereditary information carried in a chromosome by DNA
Genotype Total set of inherited characteristics determined by a person's genetic makeup
Phenotypes Observed characteristics that result from the interaction between genotype and environmental influences
Identical or monozygotic(MZ) twins Twins resulting from the splitting of a single fertilized ovum who have exactly the same genetic makeup.
Fraternal or dizygotic (DZ) twins Twins that result from the simultaneous fertilization of two separate ova-such a pair has the same degree of genetic similarity as any two non-twin siblings born to the same parents
Phenylketonuria(PKU) Rare form of mental retardation caused by error in protein metabolism, recessively inherited
Neurons Individual nerve cells
Dendrites Branching fibers of a neuron that receive input from other neurons
Axon Part of the neuron that carries neural impulses to other cells
Synapse A tiny gap separating neurons, across which chemical communication between cells can occur
Neurotransmitters Chemical substances released into the synapse that enable transmission of impulses from one neuron to another
Electroconvulsive therapy, or ECT Therapeutic induction of convulsive seizures by applying electrical current to the head; found to have some effectiveness with severe depressions
Psychosurgery Procedures that attempt to treat abnormal behavior by surgical intervention on the brain.
Dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia Proposed that the disorder was caused by excessive dopamine activity in the brain (Hence, DA-blocking drugs like Thorazine were useful.)
Catecholamine hypothesis of depression Proposed that the mood disorder resulted from a relative depletion of NE in the brain(Hence-MAO-I drugs were useful because they enhanced NE activity.)
Tardive dyskinesia Occasional long term side effect of phenothiazine treatment of schizophrenia that involves rhythmical, stereotyped movements and lip smacking
Humanistic Approach Emphasis on viewing people as whole human beings rather than analyzing them in an impersonal fashion
Created by: apontep
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