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Step 1 9.18.12

Embryology II

QuestionAnswer
what is the primary site of nutrient and gas exchange between mother and fetus? placenta
what are the 2 components of the fetal part of the placenta? cytotrphoblast "(inner), syncitiotrophoblast (outer)
What is the role of the cytotrphoblast? inner layer of chorionic villi. cyto makes cells
What is the role of the syncitiotrophoblast? outer layer. secretes HcG (signal corpus leuteum to make progesterone in first trimester)
what is the primary site of nutrient and gas exchange between mother and fetus? placenta
what are the 2 components of the fetal part of the placenta? cytotrphoblast "(inner), syncitiotrophoblast (outer)
what is the primary site of nutrient and gas exchange between mother and fetus? placenta
what are the 2 components of the fetal part of the placenta? cytotrphoblast "(inner), syncitiotrophoblast (outer)
What is the role of the cytotrphoblast? inner layer of chorionic villi. cyto makes cells
What is the role of the syncitiotrophoblast? outer layer. secretes HcG (signal corpus leuteum to make progesterone in first trimester)
What is the maternal component of the placenta and what does it do? decidua basalis, derived from endometrium. maternal blood in lacunae
What 2 abnormalities comes from a failure of the vitaline duct to obliterate? 1.vitaline fistula: failure to close, cmeconium discharge from umbilicus 2. Meckel's diverticulum- partial closure may have epigastric mucosa---->melena and periumbilical pain
Where are unmbilical arteries and veins derived from? alantois
What is the role of the umbilical vein? 1. supplies oxygenated blood from placenta to fetus, drains into IVC
What is Meckel's diverticulum? partial closing of vitaline duct with patent portioun attacthed to ileum. have melena and periumbilical pain
What is the role of the umbilical arteries? 2 of them. return deox blood from fetal internal iliac arteries to the placenta
What is the role of the umbilical vein? 1. supplies oxygenated blood from placenta to fetus, drains into IVC
What does the bulbus cordis give rise to? RV and smooth parts ( outflow tract) of left and right ventricle
How is the urachus formed and what does it do? yolk sac forms allantois in 3rd week, extends into urogenital sinus, becomes urachus: a duct between bladder and yolk sac
What does the primitive ventricle give rise to? trabeculated left and right ventricle
What 2 things can happen as a result of the urachus failing to obliterate? 1.patent urachus: get urine discharge from umbilicus 2. vesicourachal diverticulum: outpouching of the bladder
What does the primitive atrium give rise to? trabeculated left and right atrium
What is the vitaline duct? a.k.a. omphalomesenteric duct. connects yolk sac to midgut lumen
What 2 abnormalities comes from a failure of the vitaline duct to obliterate? 1.vitaline fistula: failure to close, cmeconium discharge from umbilicus 2. Meckel's diverticulum- partial closure may have epigastric mucosa---->melena and periumbilical pain
What is Meckel's diverticulum? partial closing of vitaline duct with patent portioun attacthed to ileum. have melena and periumbilical pain
what does the right horn of the sinus venosus give rise to? smooth part of right atrium
What does the truncus arteriosus give rise to? ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk
What is Meckel's diverticulum? partial closing of vitaline duct with patent portioun attacthed to ileum. have melena and periumbilical pain
What does the right common cardinal vein and right anterior cardinal vein give rise to? SVC
What does the truncus arteriosus give rise to? ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk
How does the truncus arteriosus give rise the the ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk? neural crest migration--->truncal and bulbar ridges spiral and fuse to form the aorticopulmonary septum
What does the bulbus cordis give rise to? RV and smooth parts ( outflow tract) of left and right ventricle
What happens in the truncus arteriosus fails to spiral? transposistion of great vessels
What does the primitive ventricle give rise to? trabeculated left and right ventricle
What happens if the truncus arteriosus skews the AP septum? tetrology of fallot
What does the primitive atrium give rise to? trabeculated left and right atrium
What does the left horn of the sinus venosus give rise to? coronary sinus
How does the intraventricular septum develop? AP septum forms and fuses with membranous interventricular septum closing interventricular foramen
what does the right horn of the sinus venosus give rise to? smooth part of right atrium
How does the atria and ventricles become separated? endocardial cushions grow and also help contribute to membranous portion of interventricular septum
What does the right common cardinal vein and right anterior cardinal vein give rise to? SVC
What can happen if there is an improper neural crest migration to truncus arteriosus? transposition of great vessels of persistant TA
How does the truncus arteriosus give rise the the ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk? neural crest migration--->truncal and bulbar ridges spiral and fuse to form the aorticopulmonary septum
What happens in the truncus arteriosus fails to spiral? transposistion of great vessels
What happens in the truncus arteriosus fails to spiral? transposistion of great vessels
What happens if the truncus arteriosus skews the AP septum? tetrology of fallot
What happens if the truncus arteriosus skews the AP septum? tetrology of fallot
What happens is the AP septum only develops partially? partial AP septum development
What happens is the AP septum only develops partially? partial AP septum development
How does the intraventricular septum develop? AP septum forms and fuses with membranous interventricular septum closing interventricular foramen
How does the intraventricular septum develop? AP septum forms and fuses with membranous interventricular septum closing interventricular foramen
How does the atria and ventricles become separated? endocardial cushions grow and also help contribute to membranous portion of interventricular septum
How does the atria and ventricles become separated? endocardial cushions grow and also help contribute to membranous portion of interventricular septum
What can happen if there is an improper neural crest migration to truncus arteriosus? transposition of great vessels of persistant TA
What can happen if there is an improper neural crest migration to truncus arteriosus? transposition of great vessels of persistant TA
What is Eisenmenger's syndrome? membranous septal defect initially causes a left to right shunting but later aright to left shunting
What is Eisenmenger's syndrome? membranous septal defect initially causes a left to right shunting but later aright to left shunting
What is the process of the interatrial septum development? foramen primum--->septum primum--->foramen secundum--->septum secundum--->septum primum remains as foramen ovale--->septum primum and secundum fuse to form atrial septum
What is the process of the interatrial septum development? foramen primum--->septum primum--->foramen secundum--->septum secundum--->septum primum remains as foramen ovale--->septum primum and secundum fuse to form atrial septum
when does foramen ovale usually close and how? soon after birth due to increased LA pressure
when does foramen ovale usually close and how? soon after birth due to increased LA pressure
What is the pathogenesis of a patent foramen ovale? excessive resorbtion of septum primum and or secundum
What is the pathogenesis of a patent foramen ovale? excessive resorbtion of septum primum and or secundum
What is the progression of fetal eryhtropoesis? 1. yolk sac (3-8w) 2. liver (6-30w) 3. Spleen (9-28w) 4. bone marrow (28w onward). "Young Liver Synthesizes blood
What is the progression of fetal eryhtropoesis? 1. yolk sac (3-8w) 2. liver (6-30w) 3. Spleen (9-28w) 4. bone marrow (28w onward). "Young Liver Synthesizes blood
What is the compostion of fetal vs adult hemoglobin? Fetal: alpha 2 gamma 2. Adult: alpha 2 beta 2
What is the compostion of fetal vs adult hemoglobin? Fetal: alpha 2 gamma 2. Adult: alpha 2 beta 2
What are the 3 important fetal shunts? 1. blood entering thru umbilical vein conducted via ductus venosus to bipass hepatic circ. 2. most Oxy blood reaching heart is diverted thru foramen ovale and pumped out aorta 3. deox from SVC is expelled into pulm artery and ductus arteriosus to lowbody
What does the ductus venousus help bypass? hepatic circ
What does the foramen ovale help bypass? pulm circ
What does ductus arteriosus help bypass? pulmonary circulation (RH)
How does birth help close the ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale? breath after birth decr R in pulmonary vasculature incr LA Pressure closing foramen ovale. increased O2 decreases prostaglandins which closes ductus arteriosus
What drugs help open or close the ductus arteriosus? idomethacin helps close, prostaglandins help open
What is the post natal derivative of the umbilical vein? ligamentum teres hepatis (in falciform ligament)
What is the post natal derivative of the umbilical arteries? medial umbilical ligaments
What is the post natal derivative of the ductus arteriousus? ligamentus arteriousum
What is the post fetal derivative of the ductus venosus? ligamentum venosum
What is the post natal derivative of the foramen ovale? fossa oavlis
What is the post natal derivative of the allantois? urachus between bladder and umbillicus. Urachus umbilical median ligament
What is the post natal derivative of the notocord? nucleus pulposus of intervertebral disc
What are 3 parts of the deloping brain? prosencephalon, mesencephalon, rhombencephalon
What does the prosencephalon develop into? telencephalon (wall:cerebral hemispheres cavities: lateral ventricles) and diencephalon(wall:thalamus cavities:3rd ventricle)
What does the mesencephalon deveop into? walls into midbrain, cavities into cerebral aqueduct
What does rhombencephalon develop into? metencephalon (walls: pons,cerebellum cavities: upper 4th ventricle) and myelenencephalon (wall: medulla cavities: lower 4th ventricle)
What is the result of poor folic acid intake in pregnancy? neuropores fail to close in the 4th week, get persistant connection of amniotic cavity and spinal canal
What are the aminotic, serum, and CSF levels for a non closed neuropore (lack of folic acid)? elevated alpha fetoprotein in aminotic fluid and maternal serum. increased alpha fetal protein and ACHE in CSF
What is spina bifida occulta? failure of bony spinal canal to close, no herniation. seen at lower vertebral levels
What is a meningocele? meninges herniate thru spinal canal defect
What is a meningomyelocele? meninges and SC herniate thru spinal canal defect
What is anencephaly? malformation of anterior neural tube. no brain/calvarium. elevated alpha fetoprotein no swallowing center in brain (polyhydramnios)
What is holoprosencephaly? decreased separation between hemispheres. results in cyclopia. asociated with PAtau's syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, cleft lip/palate
What is a Chiari II malformation? cerebellar tonsilar herniation thru formane magnum with aqueductal stenosis and hydrocephaly. get syringomyelia, thoracolumbar myelomeningocele
What is a Dandy-Walker malformation? large posterior fossa, absent cerebellar vermis with cystic enlargemnt of 4th ventricle. can lead to hydrocephalus and spina bifida
What is a synringomyelia and SX? enalargement of central canal of SC. crossing fibers damaged first. "Cape like" bilateral loss of pain and temp in upper extremities. associate with Chiari II and C8-T1
What does the 1st aortic arch develop into? part of maxillary artery (external carotid). 1st arch is MAXimal
What does the second aortic arch develop into? stapedial artery and hyoid artery. Second=Stapedial
What does the 3rd aortic arch develop into? common carotid and proximal part of internal carotid (C is 3rd letter of alphabet)
What does the 4th arotic arch develop into? L:aortic arch R: proximal part of R subclavian artery (4th arch =4 limbs=systemic)
What does the 6th arotic arch develop into? proximal part of pulmonary arteries L only: ductus arteriosus (6th=pulmonary and pulmonary to systemic shunt)
Between which 2 arches does the right recurrent laryngeal nerve loop around vs left?? 3rd and 4th aortic arch for Right. Still an arttatchment on left so left gets caught by ductus arteriosus
From what do brachial clefts (grooves), arches, and puches derive? CAP outside to inside. Cleft=ectoderm Arches=mesoderm Pouches=endoderm
From what are bones and cartilage of the branchial arches derived? neural crest cells
What does the 1st brachial cleft develop into? external auditory meatus
What does the 2nd thru 4th branchial clefts develop into? temporary cervical sinuses, obliterate by second arch mesenchyme
What does a persistant cervical sinus cause? branchial celft cyst within lateral neck
What are the cartilage derivatives of the 1st branchial arch? Meckel's cartilage, Mandible, Malleus, incus, sphenomandibular ligament
What are the muscle derivatives of the 1st branchial arch? Muscles of mastication (temporalis, masseter, lateral and medial pterygoids, anterior belly of digastric, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini)
What are the nerve derivatives of the 1st brachial arch? CN V2, V3. CHEW
What is Treacher Collins Syndrome? 1st brachial arch neural crest fails to migrate: madibular hypoplasia, facial abnormalities
What are the cartilage derivatives of the 2nd brachial arch? Reichert's cartilage: stapes, stylois, lesser horn of hyoid, stylohyoid ligament
What are the muscle derivatives of the 2nd branchial arch? facila expression, stapedious, stylohyoid, posterior belly of digastric
What are the nerve derivatives of the 2nd branchial arch? CNVII smile
what are the cartilage derivatives of the 3rd brachial arch? greater horn of hyoid
What are the muscle derivatives of the 3rd brachial arch? stylopharangeus
What are the nerve derivatives of the 3rd brachial arch? CN IX "swallow stylishly
What is a congential pharyngocutaneous fistula? persistance of cleft and pouch (3) get a fistula between tonsillar areas, cleft in lateral neck
What are the cartilage derivated of brachial arches 4-6? thyroid, cricoid, artenoids, corniculate, cuneiform cartilages
What are the muscle derivatives of the 4th branchial arch? pharyngeal constrictors; cricothyrois, levator veli palatini
What are the muscle derivatives of the 6th Branchial arch? all intrinsic muscles of larynx except cricothyroid
What are the nerve derivatives of the 4th branchialarch:? CN X (superior laryngeal branch) "simply swallow"
What are the nerve derivatives of the 6th brachial arch? CN X(recurrent laryngeal brach) "speak"
What forms the posterior 1/3 of the tongue? posterior 1/3: Branchial arches 3-4
What is the only branchial arch with no developmental contribution? 5
What is the pneumonic for brachial arch derivatives? "When at the restaraunt of the golden ARCHES, children tend to first CHEW, second SMILE, third SWALLOW STYLISHLY or fourth SIMPLY SWALLOW, but skip to sixth to SPEAK
Created by: tjs2123