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Demographics and Gov

Advanced World Geography

the science of studying human populations Demography
Since 1950, world populations have more than Doubled
number of births per year per thousand 20.3
number of deaths per year per thousand 9.6
birthrate minus death rate natural increase
World population is currently 6 to 7 billion people
the number of years it takes a population to double in size Doubling time
In which nations is doubling time less that 50 years? industrialized nations
demographic balance achieved when the birthrate equals the death rate zero population growth
which nations are experiencing zero population growth? Countries in Western Europe, Asia, Africa
death rate exceeds birthrate negative population growth
which nations are experiencing negative population growth? Eastern Europe, European Russia
the movement of people or ideas out of one country to another emigration
the movement of people or ideas into a country from another immigration
the pattern of human settlement; related to the earth's geography population distribution
average number of people living on a square mile; divide total population by total land area population density
rule by one political party totalitarian
there is no government anarchy
power is held by the people democracy
rule by a king or queen monarchy
rule under laws based on religious ideas theocracy
rule by aristocrats aristocracy
rule of a singly, unelected leader by force dictatorship
person or persons authorized to administer the laws government
all key powers are held by national or central government unitary system
powers are divided between national and state governments federal system
government system in which power to govern is held by one person; power to rule is inherited or by military force autocracy
type of autocracy in which government seeks to control every aspect of social and economic life totalitarian dictatorship
type of autocracy in which king, queen or emperor control the government; position and power are usually inherited absolute monarchy
the idea that a ruler was appointed by God and the right to rule the people was inherited divine right
traditional concept concerning legitimacy or Chinese rulers; similar to divine right, but conduct of ruler determined if he held power mandate of heaven
a form of autocratic government in which the political leader is also the spiritual leader is given power theocracy
type of government is which kings, queens, or emperors share power with elected legislature constitutional monarchy
government in which a few people such as a dominant clan or clique have power; group derives its power from military, wealth or social status oligarchy
government system in which power is derived from the consent of the people (popular sovereignty); self government democracy
a type of democracy in which people vote on all issues direct democracy
also known as a republic, thish type of democracy has people electing representatives to vote on issues on behalf of the voters representative democracy
-values individual freedoms and equality -based on majority rule -free elections are held -every vote carries equal weight -candidates express views freely -requirements to vote are kept to a minimum -citizens vote by secret ballet characteristics of democracy
the way society organized the production and consumption of goods and services economic system
list the three economic questions every system must answer what to produce? how to produce? for whom to produce?
what determines the economic system of a society? How they answer the three questions
decisions are based on past behavior and custom traditional economy
decisions are made by a central authority (communism; socialism) command economy
decisions are made in the market place, usually between household and businesses market (price) economy
aggregates aka... averages
a number which represents half of the numbers on one side and half on the other median
the sum of the production of goods and the supply of services in a given country is defined by the country's gross national product or GNP
-population expansion or contraction -entrepreneurism -trade -war -natural resources five factors the affect the GNP
The GNP can be broken down in to seven categories called the origin of supply
-manufacturing -construction -agriculture, fisheries, and natural resources -transportation, communication and utilities -wholesale and retail -finance, insurance, and real estate -other services seven categories of GNP
the amount of business done by all companies within the boundaries of one country gross domestic product or GDP
aggregate demand rises less quickly when income rises
the percentage of workers in a country that do not have jobs unemployment figure
In the 1930s, the USA experienced a massive unemployment, reaching 25%, this is called a depression
a less severe economic downturn is called a recession
One of the most powerful tools used to control and manipulate economic aggregate is called monetary policy
government once held precious metals in reserve, equal to the value of the paper money in circulation. this is called the gold standard
the amount of coin and paper money that the government puts in circulation is the money supply
the institution in a country that decides monetary policy central bank
Setting ____ is considered to be the primary way to control inflation and the rate of GNP. interest rates
governement spent more that it brought in deficit spending
another way of impacting economic aggregates is by shifting businesses from the private sector to the public sector or vice versa
Created by: hannahbonana



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