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Antivirals 331

Nursing Pharmacology Antivirals (Karch)

QuestionAnswer
What is the prototype drug for Influenza A and respiratory antivirals? Rimantadine
How do influenza A and Resp. virus antivirals work? Inhibit viral repl. by preventing shedding of protein coat and entry into cell
What are influenza A and resp. virus antivirals used for? prophylaxis and treatment of influenza A virus
What are the major contraindications for influenza a/resp. virus antivirals? prg and lact.: embryotoxic allergy renal dysfunction
What are the adverse effects of Influ. A/Resp. virus anti virals? CNS: lightheaded, dizzy, insomnia, depression Nausea Orthostatic hypotension
What are the drug-drug interactions with influenza A/resp. virus antivirals? Anticholinergic agents, asprin, acetomenophen, atropine (not Ibuprofin)
What is the prototype drug for herpes and cytomegalovirus antivirals? Acyclovir
How do Herpes and Cytomegalovirus antivirals work? inhibit viral DNA replication by competing with viral substrates to form shorter, non-effective DNA chains
What are herpes and cytomegalovirus antivirals used for? HSV 1 &2 genital HSV HSV encephilitis shingles/chicken pox cream used for cold sores
What are the contraindications for herpes and cytomegalovirus antivirals? preg. & lact allergy renal disease CNS disorders
What are the adverse effects of herpes and cytomegalovirus antivirals? headache vertigo tremors n/v rash hair loss
What are the drug-drug interactions with herpes and cytomegalovirus antivirals? Nephrotoxic drugs Zidovudine
What is the prototype drug for nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors? (HIV) Neviparine
How do the NNRTI drugs work? binds to HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and changes the structure of the HIV enzyme
What are the NNRTI drugs used for? HIV patients w/immunological deterioration used in combination used for AIDS patients with decreased T cells
What are the contraindications for NNRTI drugs? preg and lact.
What are the adverse effects of NNRTI? Headache n/v/d rash liver dysfunction chills fever dry mouth constipation dyspepsia abdominal pain muscle aches
What is the one common drug-drug interaction to all the HIV drugs? St. John's Wort
What is the CCR5 correcptor antagonist prototype drug? Maraviroc
How do CCR5 correceptor antagonists work? selectively bind to human chemokine receptor CCR5
What are CCR% correcptor antagonist drugs used for? Combination HIV therapy
What are the contraindications for CCR5 Corecceptor antagonist drugs? hypersensativity to drug components liver disease preg and lact coinfaction with HEP B Cardiac disease
What are the adverse effects of CCR5 correcptor antagonists? n/v/d headache, dizziness, fever musculoskeletal hepatoxicity
What is the prototype drug for Integrase Inhibitor antivirals? Raltegravir
What do Integrase Inhibitor antivirals do? inhibit activity of virus specific enzyme integrase, prevents formation of HIV-1 provirus
What are integrase inhibitor antivirals used to treat? combination antiretroviral therapy for CCR5 tropical HIV
What are the contraindication for integrase inhibitor antivirals? hypersensativity or allergy risk for RHABDOMYOLYSIS myopathy pregnancy
what are the adverse effects of integrase inhibitors? rhabdomyolysis myopathy dizziness, fever, headache n/v/d
What is the prototype for the anti-hepatitis B agents? Adefovir
What are the adverse effects of the anti Hep B agents? nephrotoxicity lactic acidosis elevated liver enzymes headache asthma nausea SEVERE or FATAL hepatomegaly with steatosis
What are the contraindications for anti Hep B agents? preg and lact allergy renal impairment severe liver disease
What are the two drugs for local active antiviral agents? Ganciclover Penciclover
How do the local antivirals work? interfere with viral replication
What is the prototype drug for the Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Zidovudine
What is special about Zidovudine among the HIV antivirals? Proven safe when used in pregnancy. Used to prevent maternal transmission of HIV
How do the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors work? Inhibit replication by competing with naturally occuring nucleosides within the cell that the virus would use to build its DNA chain
What are the contraindications for Nucleoside RTIs? caution with: hepatic dysfunction renal impairment bone marrow suppression
What are the adverse effects of the nucleoside RTIs? headache, insomnia, dizziness, fever rash n/d bone marrow suppression
What are the drug-drug interactions with nucleoside RTIs? Cyclosporine
What is the prototype drug for Protease Inhibitor anti-virals? Fosamprenavir
How do protease inhibitor antivirals work? inhibit protease activity, leads to immature, non-infectious viral particles
What are protease inhibitor antivirals used for? combination HIV therapy
What are the contraindications for use of protease inhibitors? pg and lact. Saquinavir only agent shown to NOT be teratogenic
What are the adverse effects of protease inhibitors? headache, mood changes, fatigue rash N/D Stevens Johnson Syndrome Redistribution of body fat (buffalo hump)
What is the prototype drug for fusion inhibitors? Enfuvirtide
What are the contraindications for fusion inhibitors? pregnancy lung disease
What are the adverse effects of fusion inhibitors? insomnia, depression injection site reaction n/d peripheral neuropathy pneumonia
What are the six prototype drugs used for HIV combination treatment? Enfuvirtide-fusion inhibitor Fosamprenavir-protease inhibitor Maraviroc-CCR5 correceptor antagonist Neviparine-Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Zidovudine-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Raltagravir-Integrase Inhibitor
which class of HIV drugs works by competing with naturally occuring nucleosides in the cell to prevent the virus from using it to build it's DNA chain? Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (prototype: Zidovudine)
Which HIV antiviral treatment has rhabdomyolysis as an adverse effect? Integrase inhibitors (prototype: raltagravir)
Which antiviral has a drug-drug interaction with nephrotoxic drugs? antiHep B drugs (prototype: Adefovir)
Which antivirals are contraindicated when there is renal impairment? anti-hep B agents (adefovir) herpes and cytolomegalovirus (acyclovir) influenza A and resp. virus (rimantadine) nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (zidovudine)
Which anvirials are contraindicated when there is liver disease or damage? nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (zidovudine) anti-hep b agents (adefovir) CCR5 correceptor antagonists (Maraviroc)
Which antiviral has severe to fatal hepatamegaly as an adverse effect? Anti-hep B agents (Adefovir)
Carbapenems have a drug-drug interaction with which anti-viral? Ganciclovir
Aminoglycosides have drug-drug interactions with which antiviral? Acyclovir
Which antiviral works by inhibiting viral replication by preventing the shedding of the protein coat of the virus? Influenza A-resp. virus antivirals (Rimantadine)
Which antiviral has a drug-drug interaction with another antiviral and which one is it? Herpes/cytomegalovirus antivirals (acyclovir) has a drug-drug interaction with Zidovudine (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor)
What is the most common side effect associated with Maraviroc? parasthesias and fever
What are the most common side affects associated with Rimantadine? Lightheadedness and dizziness
What are the most common side affects associated with fosamprenavir? Buffalo hump, fat redistribution (also with tenefovir) (protease inhibitors!)
What are the most common side affects seen with Neviripine? GI problems: n/v/d, dry mouth, dyspepsia, constipation, abdominal pain
Which was the first class of drugs developed to treat HIV? Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors such as Zidovudine and didanosine were the first
Which antiviral would be best for someone with acute renal impairment? Nelfinavir-primarily excreted in feces so little kidney involvement
Which antiviral is used to treat influenza a and Respiratory virus in children? Ribivirin
Created by: SarahTzipporah