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A&Pch1-2 terms

A&P ch 1/2 terms

QuestionAnswer
abdominal quadrants an approach to the geography of the abdominopelvic region most commonly used in clinical settings, dividing the abdomen into four quarters
abdominopelvic cavity the diaphragm divides the ventral body cavity into two parts: a superior part enclosed by the ribcage called thoracic cavity and the inferior abdominopelvic cavity
adhesion molocules allow the cells of a tissue to recognize one another and stick together
adipocytes fat cells derived from fibroblasts. the interior of each ---------- is dominated by a droplet of fat
adipose tissue specialized tissue for the storage of fat
ADP an energy-depleted form of ATP
anatomical position the subject or patient is erect, facing the viewer with feet pointed ahead, arms at the side and palms of the hands turned forward
ATP within the mitochondria, the energy from the oxidation of foodstuff is applied to the syntheses of ___, the general chemical energy source for energy requiring cellular processes
axial region one of the fundamental regions of the body, considting of the head, neck and trunk
bilayer double layer
blood plasma a fluid component containing salts; some organic solutions; dissolved gases and proteins
body cavities hollow spaces within the body that contain internal organs. Dorsal (includes cranial and spinal cavities), ventral (includes thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities) and Scrotal (males only)
bone marrow the side of systhesis of blood cells in adults
canaliculus small channels that allow nutrients and oxygen to reach osteocytes and cellular waste to be removed
cancellous bone bone consisting of an outer covering of compact (dense) bone surrounding a core of cancellous (spongy) bone
cardiac muscle makes of the wall of the heart and is reponsible for circulating blood to all parts of the body
cartilage a strong, flexible smooth material composed of collagen and chondrotin that, in adults, supports some soft tissues; covers the ends of bones; and provides bearing surface for joints
chondrocytes cells that secrete cartilage
chondrotitin a type of intercellular substance formed by connective tissues. a tough, flexible material that is a major component of cartilage, one form of connective tissue
collagen a type of intercellular substance formed by connective tissues composed of giant, fibrous molecules that may be arranged in bundles or as a mesh.
columnar cells that are cylindrical with heights greater then their widths
compact bone an outer covering that surrounds a core of cancellous bone composed of units called osteons
connective tissue holds body parts together and contributes to the structural integrity of other tissue types
connective tissue proper composes a loosely arranged structural gramework for almost every tissue
cranial cavity within the skull, contains the brain
cuboidal cells that are approximately as wide as they are tall
cytoplasm the intracellular fluid
cytoskeleton the scaffold of filaments within the cytoplasm that allow the cell to maintain a form and to move
differentiation a process in which unspecialized cells aquire specific cellular structures and become specialized to perform specific functions
directional terms the terms used to describe the relationships of individual structures and regions
ectoderm in the earliest stages of embryonic development, the outermost layer of the unspecialized emembryonic cells that seperate into three layers
elastin a type of intercellular substance formed by connective tissues composed of giant, fibrous molecules that may be arranged in bundles or as a mesh
endocrine glands formed by epithelial cells, the endocrine glands secrete chemical messengers called hormones into the blood.
endoderm in the earliest stages of embryonic development, the innermost layer of the unspecialized emembryonic cells that seperate into three layers
endoplasmic reticulum an internal membrane system that contains proteins and lipids destined for various metabolic fates within the cell, for secretion to the exterior, or for incorporations into the plasma membrane
epithelial tissue a specific tissue that develops from the extoderm and endoderm, consisting of sheets of cells. typically, epithelia form barriers between the interior of the body and the extermal environment, covering the body's surface and lining hollow internal organs
erythrocytes red blood cells
exocrine glands secrete substances by way of ducts to the exterior, for example, the salivary glands of the mouth and the sweat glands of the skin
extrinsic extrinsic membrane proteins are less tightly attached and may be removed by chmical treatments that do not dissolve the membrane
fibroblasts characteristic cells that secrete intercellular material
formed elements in the blood, formed elements include erthrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells) and thrombocytes (platelets)
frontal section passes parallel to the midlines and at right angles to the plane of the sagittal section and would divide the body into dorsal and ventral positions
glia supports the neurons and maintain a favorable environment for their functions
glycoproteins strands of sugar molecules attached to the proteins
golgi apparatus closely stacked sacs of endoplasmic reticulum that serve as a sorting station for proteins synthesized by ribosomes attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
haversian canal a centeral canal that contains blood vessels and nerve s surrounded by each osteon
horizontal section a cut at right angle to the midline and dividing the body into superior and inferior positions
hormones chemical messengers secreted by the endocrine glands
hyaluronic acid a major type of intercellular substance formed by connective tissues
intercellular material material secreted by fibroblasts
intermediate filaments one of three basic types of filaments within the cytoplasm that allow the cell to maintain a form and to move
intrinsic intrinsic membrane proteins are tightly associated with the membrane and in some cases span it from one side to the other
lucunae spaces between lamellae occupied by osteocytes
lamellae concentric rings of a meneralized intercellular substance surrounding Haversian canal
leukocytes white blood cells
ligaments structures that hold joints together
mesoderm in the earliest stages of embryonic development, the unspecialized emembryonic cells that lies between the ectoderm and endoderm
microfilaments one of three basic types of filaments within the cytoplasm that allow the cell to maintain a form and to move
microtubules one of three basic types of filaments within the cytoplasm that allow the cell to maintain a form and to move
midline the median line or median plane of the body or some part of the body
midsaggital section if the body were sliced into equal right and left halves, this cut would pass through the sagittal plane along the midline of the body
mitochondria rod-like structures consisting of a double-bilayer membrane that are the sites of the reactions of terminal oxidative metabolism
neurons nervous tissues that generate and conduct electrical impulses and communicate with other cells by way of chemical messages
nucleus contains the genetic material (DNA) together with molecules that affect expressions of specific parts of the genetic code
organelles structures contained within the cytoplasm
osteoblasts osteocytes that synthesize bone
osteoclasts osteocytes that break down bone
osteocytes bone cells
osteons units of compact bone
oxidative phosphorylation process in motochondria involving reactions of terminal oxidative metabolism, energy from oxidation of food applied to synthesis of ATP (general chemical energy source for energy-requiring cell processes) and ADP (energy deplete form of the same molecule)
parasagittal planes planes that cut the body to the right or left of the midline, generating unequal portions
plasma membrane the outer boundary of the cell containing membrane proteins embedded in it and attached to its surfaces
pseudostratified some simple epithelia, which are one cell layer thick, are said to be pseudostratified-they do consist of one cell layer, but some of the cells are not tall enough to reach all the way from one side of the sheet to the other
receptors membrane proteins that detect of chemical messages from other cells
ribosomes an organelle composed of proteins and ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) that systhesize proteins based on codes delivered to them in the form of messenger RNA (mRNA)
scrotal cavity a hollow internal space present only in males
simple epithelia one structural type of epithelia, one cell layer thick
skeletal muscle muscle attached to the bony skeleton that moves body parts relative to one another
smooth muscle muscle that surrounds hollow internal organs, including the stomach and intestine, the air passages in the lungs, and blood vessels. smooth muscle also forms the iris of the eyes
spinal cord contained withing the vertebral (spinal) canal within the vertebral column (spine), as part of the spinal cord
spinal roots contained within the vertebral (spinal) canal with incthe vertebral column (spine), as part of the spinal cord.
squamous cells that are flattened and resemble paving stones.
stem cells within tissue, required cells that regenerate new differentiated cells
stratified epithelia one structural type of epithelia, composed of multiple cell layers
tendons the structures that connect skeletal muscles with the body skeleton
thoracic cavity the diaphragm divides the ventral body cavity into 2 parts: superior part enclosed by the ribcage called thoracic cavity, and inferior abdominopelvic cavity
thrombocytes (platlets) component in blood
trabeculae mineralized meshwork in cancellous bone
transport proteins determine what goes into and out of the cell
transverse section horizontal plane that is the result of a horizontal cut that divides the body into superior and inferior parts
ventral body cavity comtains the soft internal organs
vertebral column the spine
vertebral canal the spinal canal within the vertebral column
viscera soft internal organs
appendicular region one of the fundamental regions of the body, consisting of the limbs or extremities
areolae pigmented area of the breast
arrector pili a tiny bundle of smooth muscle that is attached to each hair follicle
axilla armpits
basal cell carcinoma arises from cells in the basal layer of the epidermis, does not spread rapidly, and tends not to metastasize
carcinoma a malignant tumor
cerumen a protective coating for the meatus (ear wax)
ceruminous glands lovated in the external auditory meatus (ear canal) and secrete cerumen
conduction as long as the temp. of the body surface exceeds that of the environment, heat can be lost to the environment though convection (air movement across the skin surface) if the skin is in contact with a cooler object
convection as long as the temp. of the body surface exceeds that of the environment, heat can be lost to the environment though conduction (direct heat flow) if the skin is in contact with a cooler object
core body temperature the temperature of the central thorax, abdomen, and brain
cornified layer the outermost layer of skin, the stratum corneum
deep-coiled portion part of the eccrine sweat glands, the coiled portion generates a primary secretion of fluid by secreting NaCl into the gland lumen
dermal glands arising from the epidermis in the process of embryonic development, they include the sebaceous glands, sudoriferous glands, mammary glands and ceruminous glands.
dermis made up of connective tissue with abundant extracellular fibers of collagen and elastin. within are hair follicles, sebaceous glands, ducts of sweat glands, capillaries and sensory receptors responsible for sensitivity to pressure and vibration
duct portion part of the eccrine sweat glands, the primary secretion of fluid from the deep-coiled portion passes through the duct portion
eccrine sweat glands one type of sudoriferous gland. they are scattered throughout the body surgace but are most dense on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. they produce a dilute solution containing may of the constituents of blood plasma
elaidin a translucent substance formed from keratohyalin
epidermis a stratified squamous epithelium that contains keratinocytes, melanocytes and immunocytes
evaporative cooling promotes heat loss from body surgace in which some heat is absorbed by the water in the process of its transformation from liquid to gas
first-degree burns burn that involves mainly damage to the epidermis, requiring no special treatment and typically heal rapidly without scarring.
full-thickness burns a third-degree burn affecting the dermis and subcutaneous tissue
hair follicle encloses the root of a hair in the skin
holocrine glands sebaceous glands in which the secretions are formed as a product of the breakdown of dead gland cells
hypodermis underneath the dermis and not technically part of the skin, a subcutaneous layer containing loose connective tissue, arterioles, venules and adipose tissue
immunocytes provide a first line of defense against invasion by microbes, fungi and parasites
keratin a protein produced by keratinocytes
keratinocytes cells responsible for the wear-resistance and waterproof qualities of skin
keratohyalin a precursor of keratin
lacation production of milk by the mammary glands during a period of infant nutrition after birth
lunula the crescent-shaped region at the base of the nail
malignant melanoma arises from melanocytes in the skin or in pigmented moles. some forms spread very rapidly and also metastasize freely to other body tissues
mammary glands located in the breasts of females, are modified sweat glands that have evolved to produce milk during a period of infant nutrition after birth called lactation
matrix located at the base of each hair follicle where the hair grows
melatin the pigment in the skin
melanocytes produce melanin, and they are partly responsible for skin color
merocrine glands sudoriferous glands in which part of the secretory cells themselves appears in the secretion
metastasize in reference to carcinoma, to spread to other parts of the body
nail groove nails arise from a matrix of stem cells located here at the base of each nail
nail matrix where the growth of the nail occurs
nevus a pigmented mole
papillary layer one layer of dermis, made of fingerlike projections-project into overlying epidermis. the papillae contain an extensive capillary network that supplies the needs of the basal layer of the epidermis & also play an important role in heat loss from body core
partial-thickness burn second-degree burn
radiation as long as the temperature of the body surgace exceeds that of the encironment, heat can be lost to the encironment through radiation (transfer by electromagnetic radiation) if the skin is in contact with a cooler object
reticular layer one layer in dermis, largely composed of network of crisscrossing collagen and elastin fibers that give the skin its elasticity and resilience
sebaceous glands holocrine glands that are associated with hair follicles and secrete an oily sebum onto the skin surface
sebum oily substance secreted by sebaceous glands onto the skin to reduce the loss of moisture and contains antimicrobial chemicals
second-degree burn also called partail-thickness burns, these burns involve at least some damage to the dermis
skin grafts in this procedure, islands of transplanted skin are created within the burned region, using small flakes of skin removed from unburned body surfaces. these islands increase the rate of recolonization of new skin cells to the burned area
squamous cell arises from cells in the stratum spinosum, and has a higher probability of metastasis
stratum basale deepest layer of skin (stratum germinativum)
stratum corneum the outermost layer of skin, twenty to thirty cells deep, consisting entirely of dead keratinocytes filled with keratin
stratum germinativum deepest layer of skin where new keratinocytes are continuously produced from stem cells
stratum granulosum as cells leave the stratum spinosum and enter this layer, they begin to synthesize and store a keratohyalin
stratum lucidum consists of cells filled with droplets of elaidin
stratum spinosum new keratinocytes push upward into this layer above the stratum germinativum
subcutaneous fat adipose tissue that protects underlying organs from mechanical shock, serves as a thermal insulation, and contributes to the sex-specific body contours of men and women
sudoriferous glands sweat glands
thermoregulation process that maintains the core body temperature consistant within a few tenths of a degree Celsius
third-degree burns also called full-thickness burns in which both the dermis and subcutaneous tissue are affected
tonic a steady rate of nerve impulses along sympathetic nerves to superficial blood vessels that maintains some degree of vascular tone in those vessels.
Created by: brookealison2001