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Antibiotics 310

Nursing Pharmacology Antibiotics

QuestionAnswer
What is the prototype drug for Aminoglucosides gentamicin
Is gentamicin bacteriocidal or bacteriostatic? Bacteriocidal
How do aminoglucosides work? they inhibit protein synthesis in susceptible gram negative bacteria and disrupt the integrity of the cell membrane
What are aminoglucosides used for? serious infections when penicillin is contraindicated
Are aminoglucosides broad or narrow spectrum antibiotics? Broad
What are the other drugs in the aminoglucoside category besides gentamicin? amikacin kanamycin neomycin streptomycin tobramycin
What are the contraindications for aminoglucosides? -Allergy -Renal/hepatic disease -Pre-existing hearing loss -Active Herpes/Mycobacterial -Myasthenia gravis -Parkinsons -Pregnancy and Lactation
What are the drug-drug interactions with aminoglucosides? -Diuretics -Neuromuscular blockers -IV Acyclovir
What are the adverse effects of aminoglycosides? n/v/d OTOTOXICITY NEPHROtoxicity HEPATIC toxicity CNS: confusion, depression, disorientation Superinfection Heart palpitations Hyper- and hypo- tension
What should you test for frequently when using aminoglycosides? Why? Urine function. Depend on kidney for excretion and are toxic to the kidney
Are Carbapenems broad or narrow spectrum? Gram neg or pos? Broad. Both gram neg and pos
What is the prototype drug for Carbapenems? Ertapenem
Is Ertapenem ok for children? NO, not recommended for patients under 18
Are Carbapenems bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal? Bacteriocidal
How do carbapenems work? Inhibit cell membrane synthesis, leads to cell death
What are carbapenems used for? SERIOUS INFECTIONS -Intra-abdominal infections -Connective tissue infections -Community acquired pneumonia -GU infections -Bone and joint infections -UTI
What are the other carbapenem drugs besides ertapenem? Doripenem Imipenem-cilastin
What are the major contraindications for carbapenems? -Allergy to carbapenem or beta-lactums -Seizure disorders -Meningitis -Preg and Lact -Under 18
What are the major drug-drug interactions with carbapenems? Valproic Acid Ganciclover capsules
What are the major adverse effects of carbapenems? n/v/d NEPHROtoxicity dizziness headache pseudomembranous colitis rash pain at injection site superinfection
What should you test for frequently when using carbapenems? Why? Urine function bc depend on kidney for excretion and are toxic to the kidney.
Which drugs are similar to penicillins in structure and activity? Cephalosporins
Are cephalosporins broad or narrow spectrum? Are they gram pos or neg? Broad. Both
What is the prototype drug for cephalosporins? Cefaclor
Are cephalosporins bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal? How do they work? Both. They interfere with cell wall synthesis causing lysis.
What are the major drug-drug interactions with cephalosporins? Aminoglycosides Oral Anticoagulants Alcohol
What are cephalosporins used for? Respiratory tract infections UTI Skin infection Otitis media Typhoid Anthrax exposure
What are the major contraindications for cephalosporins? Allergy Hepatic/renal impairment Preg & Lact
What are the major adverse effects of cephalosporins? n/v/d pseudomembranous colitis Anorexia Abdominal pain NEPHROtox Hepatic dysfunction Headache Dizziness Lethargy Parasthesias
What do all the cephalosporin drugs have in common in their name? Cef or Ceph
What is the prototype drug for the floroquinolones? ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
Are the floroquinolones broad or narrow spectrum? Are they gram neg or gram pos? How do they work? Broad. Gram negative. Interfere w/DNA enzymes
What are floroquinolones used for? Respiratory infections UTI Dermatological infections Ear infection Eye infection Bone/joint infections Prophylactically for: Anthrax Typhoid
What are the major contraindications for fluroquinolones? Allergy Preg and Lact. Renal and Hepatic dysfunction Seizure disorders Under 18
What are the major adverse effects of fluroquinolones? n/v/d headache dizziness hypotension Fever Rash Photosensitivity BM suppression
What are the drug-drug interactions with fluroquinolones? Quinadine (cardiac arrest) Antacids NSAIDs Theophylline (reduce dosage) *QANT*
What is the prototype drug for the penicillins? Amoxicillin
Are Penicillin class drugs bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal? broad or narrow spectrum? How do they work? Bacteriocidal. Broad. Interfere with cell wall synthesis, high SELECTIVE TOX
What are penicillin drugs used for? UTI Pneumonia Stretococcal infections Syphillis Helicobacter infection Rat-bite fever Anthrax exposure
What are the major contraindications for Penicillins? Allergy to penicillin or cephalosporins renal dysfunction Preg. and Lact.
What are the drug-drug interactions with penicillins? tetracyclines IV aminoglucosides
What are the major side effects of penicillins? abdominal pain sore mouth furry tongue n/v/d rash fever superinfection
What is the prototype drug for sulfonomides? cotrimoxazole
What are three other drugs in the sulfonomide class besides cotrimoxazole? sulfadiazine sulfasalazine sulfisoxacole
Are sulfonomides used for gram pos or neg? How do they work? Both. Block folic acid synthesis and nucleic acid production interfere with cell wall production
What are sulfonomides used for most commonly? *UTI STD Traveler's diarrhea Otitis media Trachoma
What are the adverse effects of sulfonomides? n/v/d NEPHROtox HEPATA tox CNS effects Steven Johnson Syndrome Rash Photophobia Hematuria Fever/chills
What are the drug-drug interactions with sulfonamides? Thiazide diuretics Cyclosporin Sulfonylureas (antidiabetic drugs, can cause hypoglycemia)
What is the prototype drug for tetracyclines? Tetracycline
What are three other tetracyclines besides the prototype? demeclocycline doxycycline minocycline
Are teteracyclines broad or narrow spectrum? How do they work? Broad. Inhibit protein synthesis Affects same protein in humans so can be toxic
What is the most common use for tetracyclines? Acne various infections when penicillin is contraindicated
What are the major contraindications for tetracyclines? Allergy Preg. and Lact Children under 8 years Fungal, mycobacterial or viral occular infections hepatic/renal dysfunction
Major adverse effects of tetracyclines? N/V/D BM Suppresion Photosensitivity Glossitis Discolor and inadequate calcification of primary teeth Superinfections
What are the majore drug-drug interactions with tetracyclines? Digoxin Oral Contraceptives Methoxyflurane Penicillin G *DOMP*
What is the prototype drug for the antimycobacterials (anti-TB)? Leprostatic? Isoniazid Dapsone
What are antimycobacterial drugs used for? Treatment of TB prophylactic treatment of household members of someone recently diagnosed with TB
What are the eight other antimycobacterial drugs besides isoniazid? capreomycin cycloserine ethambutol ethionamide pyrazinamide rifampin rifapentine streptomycin
How do antimycobacterial drugs work? interfere with lipid and nucleic acid synthesis
What are the major contraindications for antimycobacterial drugs? Allergy Hepatic/renal dysfunction Pregnancy CNS dysfunction
What are the drug-drug interactions for antimycobacterial drugs? Isoniazid taken with rifampin may cause LIVER toxicity Oral Contraceptives
What is Dapsone used for most commonly? Leprosy Brown recluse spider bites
What are the major adverse effects of antimycobacterial drugs? n/v/d CNS: hallucinations Peripheral neuropathy Hepatitis BM suppression Fever Local irritation at injection site Gynecomastia Lupus syndrome Orange tint to bodily secretions
What is the most common side effect with rifampin, rifabutin and rifapentine? Orange tint in bodily secretions
What is the prototype drug for Ketolides? telithromycin
Are ketolides bacteriocidal or bacteriostatic? how do they work? bacteriocidal Bind to bacterial ribosome, alters protein function
What are ketolides used for? Only FDA approved drug for community-acquired pneumonia
What are the contraindications for ketolides? Allergy Allergy to MACROLIDES renal/hepatic impairment
What are the adverse effects of ketolides? n/v/d psuedomembranous colitis BM suppression CNS effects hypotension cardiac arrest rash pain/abscess at injection site
What is the prototype drug for macrolides? erythromycin
What are three other macrolides besides erythromycin? azithromycin clarithromycin dirithromycin
are macrolides bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal? How do they work? Both Bind to cell membrane, causing change in protein function and cell death
What are macrolides used for? Allergy to penicillin dermatological infections eye infections URI Legionaire's Disease Syphillis Mycoplasma pneumonia Chlamidia GI infections UTIs prophalyxis for endocarditis/valve heart problems before dental work
What are the contrindications for macrolides? Allergy Hepatic dysfunction occular contraind if viral, fungal or mycobacterial infect. of eye Renal disease Preg & lact.
What are the drug-drug interactions with macrolides? Cycloserine (causes renal tox) Increased effects: Digoxin Oral Anticoagulants Theophyllines Carbamezapine Corticosteroids
What are the adverse effects of macrolides? n/v/d abdominal cramping pseudomembranous colitis Neurological/psychological effects rash superinfection liver toxicity hearing loss
What is the prototype drug for the monobactam antibiotics? aztreonam
are monobactam antibiotics gram pos or gram neg? how does it work? Gram neg. enterobacteria. Interferes with cell wall synthesis, causing cell death
Can maonobactam antibiotics be taken by mouth? No, parenteral only
What are the contraindications for monobactam antibiotics? Allergy Allergy to penicillin or cephalosporin Renal/hepatic dysfunction preg & lact.
What are the drug-drug interactions for monobactam antibiotics? Incompatible in solution with: Nafcillin Cephradine Metronidazole
What are the adverse effects of monobactam antibiotics? n/v/d Rash hypersensitivity pain at injection site rash superinfection liver toxicity
What are monobactam antibiotics used for? UTI Dermatological infections Gynocological infections Lower respiratory infections Intra-abdominal infections
Which antibiotics interfere with cell wall synthesis? cephalosporins (cefaclor) Penicillins (amoxicillin) sulfonamides (cotrimoxazole) Monobactam (aztreonam)
Which antibiotics interfere with protein synthesis? aminoglycosides (gentamycin) tetracyclines (tetracycline) lincosamides (clindamycin)
Which antibiotics interfere with or change protein function? Ketolides (telithromycin) macrolides (erythromycin)
macrolides work by... interfering with protein synthesis
What does the mnemonic STRIPE stand for? Anti-TB drugs streptomycin rifampin Isoniazid Pyrazinamide Ethambutol
what are the most common side effects of cephalosporins? GI effects: n/v/d, abdominal pain, flatulence dermatological effects: rash, itching
What are two examples of penicillinase resistant penicillins? oxacillin and nafcillin
What are the two most common macrolides? erythromycin and zithromax (Z-pac, good because short dosing time, well compliant)
What are the most common side effects of macrolides? GI effects & hepatoxicity
Created by: SarahTzipporah