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Step 1 9.16.12

Embryology I

QuestionAnswer
Where is Sonic hedgehog produced and what is its importance? produced at base of limbs in zone of polarizing activity. invovled in patterning along anterior posterior axis
Where is Wnt 7 produced and what is its importance? produced at apical ectodermal ridges, necessary for proper dorsal ventra lorganziation
Where is FGF prodcued and what is its importance? produced at apical ectodermal ridge. stimulates mitosis of underlying mesoderm. providing for lengthening of limbs
What is the importance of Homeobox (Hox) genes and what do their mutation lead to? invovled in segmental oraganization of embryon in cranicaudal direction. mutation causes appendages to be in wrong place
What happens on Day 0 for embryo? fertilization by sperm forming zygote, intiating embryogenesis
What is the major embryo landmark in the 1st week? hCG begins after implatation of the blastocyst
What is the embryologic land mark for 2 weeks? bilaminar disk forms (epiblast, hypoblast)
What is the embyologic landmark within week 3? trilaminar disk forms, gastrulation. primitive streeak, notocord, mesoderm. neural plate begin to form
What are the key events of embryo week 3-8? neural tube formed by neuroectoderm clsoes by week 4. organogenesis and very susceptible to teratogens
What are the embryologic landmarks fo week 4? heart beats. upper and lower limb buds form
What is the landmark for week 8 of development? fetal movement, fetus looks like baby
What is the development landmark for week 10? genetalia have male/female characterstics
What is the orientation and parts of the alar and basal plates? alar plate (dorsal) becomes sensory, basal plate ( ventral) becomes motor. same oreintation as the SC
What is the process of neural development of neural plate and notocord? notocord induces overlying ectoderm to differentiate into neuroectoderm and fomr the neural plate
What is the embryologic fate of the neural plate and notocord? neural plate gives rise to nerual tube and neural crest cells. notocord becomes nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral discs
What is the rule of 2's for week 2 of development? 2 germ layers: bilaminar disc of epiblast and hypoblast. 2 cavities: amniotic + yolk sac 2 components of placenta: cytotrophoblast, syncitiotrophoblast
How does the primitive streak form and what does it directly give rise to? epiblast invaginates to form it. cells from it form intraembryonic mesoderm, endoderm
What is the rule of 3's for week 3 of development? 3 germ layers formed(gastrula): ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
What is the rule of 4 for week 4? 4 heart chambers, 4 limb buds
What are the derivatives of the surface ectoderm? adenohyphosis (Rathke's puch), lens, oral epiuthelium, sensory organs of ear, olfatory epithelium, epidermis, anal canal before pectinate line. salivary, sweat, mammillary glands
What is a cranipharyngioma? benign Rathke's puch tumor with cholesterol crystals, calcifications
What are the derivatives of the neuroectoderm? brain (CNS neurons, oligodendrocytes,astrocytes) retina, spinal cord
What are the derivatives of the neural crest cells? ANS, dorsal root ganglia, CN, celiac ganglion, chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla, parafollicular cells of thyroid, schwann cells, pia and arachnoid. bones of skull, odontoblasts, aorticopulmonary septum.
What is a general picture of the derivatives of neural crest cells? Think PNS and surronding structures, teeth (CREST toothpaste)
What are the derivatives of the endoderm? gut tube epithelium(anal canal above pectinate line): liver, lungs, kidney, thymus, pancreas, parathyroid, thyroid follicular cells
What are the derivatives of the mesoderm? muscle bone, CT, seroud linings of cavitties, spleen, CV strcutures, lymphatics, blood, bladder, urethra, vagina, kidsneys, adrenal cortex, skin dermis testes ovaries
What is a mnemonic for mesodermal defects? VACTERL: vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects,tracheo-Esophageal fistula, renal defects, limb defects
What is the postnatal derivative of the notocord? nucleus pulposus of IV disk
What is a malformation and when does it occur? intrinsic disruption, poccurs during embryonic period (week 3-8)
What is a deformation adn when does it occur? extrinsic disruption occuring after embryonic picture
What is an agenesis? absent organ due to absent primordial tissue
What is a hypoplasia? incomplete organ development, primordial tissue is present
What is an aplasia? absent organ despite present primordial tissue
When are embryos most vulnerable to teratogens? weeks 3-8
What is the fetal effect of ACE inhibitors in pregnancy? renal damage
What is the fetal effect of alkylating agents in pregnancy? absence of digits, multiple anomalies
What is the fetal effect of aminoglycosides in pregnancy? CN VIII toxicity (A MEAN GUY hit the baby in the ear)
What is the fetal effect of carbamazepine in pregnancy? neural tube defects, craniofacial defects,fingernail hypoplasia, IUGR
What is the fetal effect of diethylstilbestrol in pregnancy? vaginal cear cell carcinoma
What is the fetal effect of folate antagonists in pregnancy? neural tube defects
What is the fetal effect of lithium in pregnancy? Ebstein's anomaly (atrialized right ventricle)
What is the fetal effect of phenytoin in pregnancy? fetal hydantoin syndrome: microcephaly, dysmorphic cranifacial features, hypoplastic features, cardiac defects, IUGR, mental retardation
What is the fetal effect of in tetracycline pregnancy? discolored teeth
What is the fetal effect of thalidomide in pregnancy? limb defects ( flipper limbs)
What is the fetal effect of valproate in pregnancy? inhibtion of maternal folate absorbtion leads to neural tube defects
What is the fetal effect of warfarin in pregnancy? bone deformities, fetal hemorrage, abortion, opthalmological abnormaties (no warfare on placenta, kepp happy with Heparin!)
What is the fetal effect of alcohol in pregnancy? leading cause of birth defects and mental retardation. fetal alcohol syndrome
What is the fetal effect of cociane in pregnancy? fetal addiction, placental abruption
What is the fetal effect of amokingin pregnancy? preterm labor, palcental problems. IUGR, ADHD
What is the fetal effect of iodide lack or excess? in pregnancy? congenital goiter of hypothyroidism
What is the fetal effect of maternal diabetes in pregnancy? caudal regression syndrome (anal atresia), CHD, neural tube defects
What is the fetal effect of excess vitamin A in pregnancy? extremely high risk for spontaneous abortion and cleft palate, cardiac abnormalities
What is the fetal effect of x rays in pregnancy? microcephaly, mental retardation
What is fetal alcohol syndrome? retardation, microcephaly, holoprosencephaly, facila abnormality, limb dislocation, heart and lung fistulas
What is the mechanism of dizygotic vs monozygotic twins? dizygotic= 2 eggs separately ferilized. monozygotes come from 1 egg
Created by: tjs2123