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Nutrition test 1

Chapter 1,6,9

Active involvement in behaviors or programs that advance positive well-being Health promotion
the sum of the processes involved with the intake of nutrients as well as assimilating and using them to maintain body tissue and provide energy; a foundation for life and health. nutrition
a professional dietitian, accredited with an academic degree of undergraduate or graduate study program, who has passed required registration examinations administered by the American Dietetic Association Registered Dietitian (RD)
A state of optimal physical, mental, and social well-being; relative freedom from disease or disability Health
what provides energy carbs
what builds tissue protein
metabolism refers to the ___ of all body processes that accomplish the 3 basic life-sustaining task. sum
Each gram of carbohydrate consumed yields ___ of body energy 4
Each gram of fats consumed yields a fuel factor of ___ 9
Each gram of proteins consumed yields ___ fuel factor. 4
Vitamins and minerals are nutrients that help ___ many body process regulate
Optimal nutrition means that a person receives and uses substances obtained from a __ & __ diet of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins, and water in ___ amounts varied and balanced ideal amounts
The sum of all chemical changes that take place in the body by which it maintains itself and produces energy for its functioning metabolism
a polysaccharide, the main storage form of carbohydrate, largely stored in the liver and to a lesser extent in muscle tissue glycogen
refers to a unit of heat measure calorie
A kilocalorie, or 1000 calories, is the measure of heat necessary to raise the temp of 1000g (1L) of water ___ 1C
nitrogen-bearing compounds that form the structural units of protein. amino acids
After digestion amino acids are available for synthesis of specific tissue protein
signs of more serious malnutrition appear when nutritional ___ are depleted and nutrient and energy intake is not sufficient to meet day-to-day needs or added metabolic stress reserves
The RDAs, recommended dietary allowances, published by the national academy of sciences, has been thee authoritative source setting standards for the ___ amounts of nutrients necessary to protect almost all persons against the risk for nutrient deficiency minimum
In 2005, the prevalence of food insecurity was substantially higher in households headed by what 3 households Single mothers African Americans Hispanic
both public awareness and research attention have shifted to reflect an increasing emphasis on nutrient requirements for ___ optimal health within the general population maintaining
Nutrient recommendations for each gender and age group that can be used for assessing and planning diets for healthy populations DRIs Dietary reference intakes
recommended daily allowances of nutrients and energy intake for population groups according to age and sex, with defined weight and height RDAs recommended dietary allowances
a visual pattern of the current basic 5 food groups, arranged in a pyramid shape to indicate proportionate amounts of daily food choices. MyPyramid
what are the 5 groups in the pyramid Grains Vegetables Fruits Milk Meat and beans
the current guidelines continue to serve as a useful general guide for ___ dietary and lifestyle choices that reduce the risk for chronic disease promoting
good food habits based on __ & __ can help build sounds, healthy bodies moderation and variety
Why does the body need constant energy? to do work necessary for maintenance of life and health
Both __ & __ actions are involved for the body to work voluntary and involuntary
___ work includes all actions related to a person's usual activities as well as any additional physical exercise voluntary
what work is a conscious action; such as swimming, walking, running Voluntary
All of the activities in the body not consciously performed involuntary
what body work is responsible for such as vital processes as circulation, respiration, digestion, and absorption- as well as many other internal activities that maintain life involuntary
circulation, respiration, digestion, and absorption is referred to as thermic effect of food
what forms do involuntary body functions require energy for? Chemical electrical mechanical thermal
what is chemical energy many metabolic products
what is electrical energy brain and nerve activities
what is mechanical energy muscle contraction
what is thermal heat energy to keep the body warm
A ___ is the amount of hear necessary to raise 1 _ of water 1C kilocalorie (kg)
what is a calorie measurement of heat
relative fuel densities: carbohydrate __ Kcal/g Fat __ Kcal/g protein __ Kcal/g alcohol __ Kcal/g 4 9 4 7
In the environment, the ultimate source of energy is the __ and its vast nuclear reactions sun
Using __ & __ as raw materials, plants transform the sun's radiation into __ __ __ stored chemical energy
the food chain continues as animals, what cycle includes human being, eat plants and the flesh of other animals External energy cycle
when people eat plant and animal foods, the stored energy changes into body fuels (__&__) and cycles them into carious other energy forms to serve body needs glucose and fatty acids
what cycle includes the involuntary actions, such as chemical, electrical, mechanical, and thermal Internal energy cycle
as internal energy cycle continues, water is __, carbon dioxide is __, and hear is __ returning these end products to __ environment excreated exhaled radiated external
A 12 to 48 hour reserve of __ exists in __&__ and is __ depleted if not replenished by daily food intake glycogen liver and muscles quickly
Breakfast has a significant function for energy intake
what is used for the body's primary fuel, with fat assisting as a storage fuel carbs
what is used for energy only when other fuel sources are not available protein
although fat storage is larger than glycogen, the supply varies from person to person adipose tissue
as an additional energy resource, ___ provides more Kcal per gram than any other fuel source stored fat
energy in the form of protein exist in ____ muscle mass
what kind of muscle mass must be maintained for health lean
the total chemical changes that occur during all these activities are called metabolism
the exchange of energy in overall balance usually is expressed in kilocalories
the following 3 demands for energy determine the body's total energy requirements resting energy expenditure physical activity thermic effect of food
refers to the sum of all internal working activities of the body at rest and is expressed in kcal per day resting energy expenditure (REE)
the amount of energy needed by the body for maintenance of life at rest over 24-hour period; often used interchangeably with basal energy expenditure but is slightly higher REE, resting energy expenditure
the amount of energy (in kcal) needed by the body for maintenance of life when a person is at complete digestive, physical, mental, thermal, and emotional rest BEE, basal energy expenditure
what test may be used as an indicator of BMR because the thyroid hormone regulates metabolism thyroid function test
what is TEE total energy expenditure
what is PA physical activity
what is EER estimated energy requirement
what is the formula for calculating basal energy needs 1kcal X kg body weight X 24 hours- males 0.9kcal X kg body weight X 24 hours- females
ONe of the greatest factors affecting metabolism is the percent of ____ lean body mass
energy expenditure also is influenced by __ hormonal status
the flight or fight reflexes __ metabolic rate because of the hormone __ increase epinephrine
what other hormones can increase metabolism and may fluctuate daily growth hormone insulin cortisol
growth hormone, insulin, and cortisol effect metabolism. (Do they increase/decrease it? How often do these change? increase daily
after eating, food stimulates __ and requires extra energy for __,__,__ of nutrients to the cells metabolism digestion, absorption, and transportation
your estimated energy requirements (in kcal) per day is the sum of your body's 3 uses of energy, as follows 1- RMR (resting metabolic rate) 2- Thermic effect of food 3- physical activity
mostly resting with little or no planned strenuous activity and only performing those tasks required for independent living sedentary
in addition to activities of a sedentary lifestyle, the added equivalent of a 1.5 to 3 mile walk at a speed of 3-4 mph for the average-weight person low active
in addition to the activities identified with a sedentary lifestyle, an average of 60 minutes of daily moderate-intensity physical activity active
in addition to activities of a sedentary lifestyles, an activity level equivalent to walking 3-4 mph for 12 to 22 miles/day, or shorter periods of more vigorous exertion very active
formula for EER, estimated energy requirements; men, age 19 or older 662-(9.53 X age [year]) + physical activity(PA) X (15.91 X weight [kg] + 539.6 X height[m]
formula for EER, estimated energy requirements; females, age 19 and older 354- (6.91 X age [yr] + PA X (9.36 X weight [kg] + 726 X height [m]
body metabolism requires water
a general rule is that roughly ___ of water is necessary for every __ in the diet 1000mL 1000kcal
__ plays an important role in determining water needs, especially in __ age infants
an infants body content of water is __% of total body weight 70-75
a relatively large amount of this total body water is __ the cells and thus is more easily _ outside lost
in dehydration, b/p and pulse b/p decreases and pulse increases
dehydration weight loss greater than __% usually is fatal 20
what is hyponatremia sodium level below 135
as blood volume is diluted with excess water, the water moves to the ___ spaces to reestablish equilibrium with ___ intracellular fluid sodium concentration
plasma protein molecules are retained in __, controlling water movement in the body and maintaining blood volume by influencing the shift of water in and out of capillaries blood vessels
plasma proteins are called calloids, which exert collidal osmotic pressure (COP) to maintain integrity of __ blood volume
the movement of water molecules from an area with low solute concentration to an area with high solute concentration osmosis
the force by which these particles move outward in all directions from an area of greater concentration of particles to an area of lesser concentration of particles simple diffusion
fluid pressure produced by protein molecules in the plasma and cell COP colloidal osmotic pressure
antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also called vasopressin, is synthesized by the hypothalamus and stored in the ___ for release pituitary gland
the hormone aldosterone is produced by the ___ adrenal glands
where are the adrenal glands located top of each kidney
what does pH stand for power of the hydrogen
pH less than 7 are acid
pH higher than 7 are alkaline
the human body contains many buffer systems because only a relatively narrow range of pH is compatible with life 7.35 to 7.45
blood pH less than 7.35. acidosis
respiratory acidosis is caused from an accumulation of carbon dioxide
metabolic acidosis may be caused by a variety of conditions resulting in excess accumulation of acids in the __ or from a significant loss of __ body bicarbonate
blood pH greater than 7.45 alkalosis
respiratory alkalosis is caused from __ and excess loss of __ hyperventilation carbon dioxide
metabolic alkalosis is seen with extensive __ in which significant amounts of __ are secreted (a base) vomiting bicarbonate
a human body is approx __ water 50-60
what is the normal range for Potassium 3.5 to 5
what is the normal range for sodium 135 to 145
what is the normal range for calcium 8.5 to 10
what is the normal range for glucose 70 to 110
what is the normal range for creatine 0.6 to 1.2
what is the normal range for BUN 8-21
Created by: KP1031