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Chapter 2: The Digestive System: Mechanism for Nourishing the Body

Main structures of the digestive system? oral cavity esophagus stomach small & large intestine
Accessory organs pancreas liver gallbladder
4 layers of the lumen (tubular part of the intestine) mucosa submuscosa muscularis externa serosa or adventitia
Mucosa inner most layer of lumen interacts with food the most
Submucosa connective tissue also has submucosal plexus
Submucosal plexus part of the submucosa that is part of the eneteric nervous system controlling digestion
Muscularis externa circulartory muscle (circular and longitudnal smooth muscle) myentaeric plexus
Myentaric Plexus part of the enteric nervou systemt hat controls digestion
Composition of the oral cavity mouth and pharynx
What are the organs of the oral cavity? mouth pharynx salivary glands
Types of salivary glands parotid submandibular sublingual
Salivary glands are the first level of what? chemical digestion using amylases (MAIN source)
What is in saliva? Enzymes that help to breakdown and santize foods
Main enzyme in saliva? amylase
Function of the esophagus moves bolus from oral cavity to stomach
Swallowing is what and occurs where? moving the bolus down and in the esophogus
What are the 3 types of swallowing? voluntary pharyngeal esophageal (larynx causes epiglottis to cover the glottis)
Peristalsis is what and where does it occur? waves moving food down the esophagus
Gastroesophageal sphincter connects the esophagus to the stomach
Example of a disease of the esophagus gastrointestinal intestinal disease (GERD)
Is swallowing dependent on gravity? NO!
Bolus cewed food and saliva
4 main regions of the stomach cardia fundus body antrum (distal pyloric region)
Cardia region GE sphincter
Fundus top part
Antrum (DPR) bottom; between stomach and SI
Function of DPR grinds food and mixes with gastric juices to form chyme
DPR uses what to move chyme? peristalsis
Volume of stomach full and empty? empty: 50mL full: 1L
How much saliva is produced each day? ~1L
What percentage of saliva is water? 99%
function of saliva? dissolves and lubricates food
What does saliva contain? antibacterial and antiviral components
What does GERD result from? gastric acid entering the esophagus
What are some potential precipitators? smoking, chocolate, peppermint, alcohol, and peppermint cause sphincter to relax
If you are prone to GERD, what should you avoid? precipitating foods and laying down after eating
Gastric glands of the stomach cardiac oxyntic pyloric
Cells in glands neck (mucus) cells parietal (oxyntic) cells chief (peptic or zymogenic cells enteroendocrine cells
Neck (mucus) cells mucus forms barrier around tissue to prevent acid harm
Parietal (oxyntic) cells secrete acid to activate the enzyme pepsinogen and secretes intrinsic facotr which binds to B12 for absorption
Chief (peptic or zymogenic) cells secrete enzymes pepsinongen and breaks down proteins a little but not much
Enteroendocrine cells secretes hormones in blood
Active state of pepsin pepsinogen
composition of gastric juice HCl enzymes mucus intrinsic factor
Gastric juices are made up of HCl for these reasons converts pepsinogen to pepsin denatures proteins releases nutrients from organic complexes acts as bacteriocide
Denaturing of acid proteinss acid connections become more linear and pepsinogen can cleave in
Release of organic complexes form an ionic bond from food to release nutrient
Enzymes in the stomach some amylase (not much) pepsin lipase
Mucus provides about 2mm of pr?otection from acid
Why is there amylase in the stomach? it travels with the saliva
What limited chemical digestion takes place in the stomach? -initiation of protein synthesis -limited continuation of starch hydrolysis -absorption of water, alcohol, and a few drugs and minerals -HCl important for iron and IF for B12
What is HCl important for? iron
What is IF (intrinsic factor) important for? B12 absorption
Hormones and peptide that INHIBIT gastric secretion. PYY, GIP, secretin, somatostatin
Hormones and peptides that STIMULATE gastric secretion. gastrin releasing peptide gastrin HCl
What is the release of HCl stimulated by? gastrin, acetylcholine, histamine
Cause of peptic ulcers H. Pylori
Treatment of peptic ulcers H2 blocker= (pepcid/zantac) antagonize signals of histamine OR Proton Pump Inhibitors: (priolosec) inhibit HCl by binding receptor
H. Pylori bacteria that's acid resistant and a cause of peptic ulcers
What can disrupt the mucus barrier? aspirin, alcohol, ibuprofen,
The small intestine was made to do what? maximize surface area to increase absorption
Structural aspects of SI folds of Kerckring Villi microvilli brush border crypts of Lieberkuhn
Folds of Kerckring large circular folds of mucosa
Villi at the end of the folds of Kerckring; finger-like projections
Microvilli hair-like extensions of the cells' plasma membranes
Crypts of Lieberkuhn in between villi and replace the old villi
Enterocytes in the SI are replaced? every 3-5 days they are slothed off and digested, which from that, the nutrients are used to make a new one!
What is the relaxation reflex of the stomach? controlled by vagud nerve
Some people use a ____ to control contractions pacemaker
What causes ____ contractions that move from fundus to antrum? myoelectric complex complex; wave-like
What is the release of chyme regulated by? volume and osmolarity
Overall gastric emptying takes how long? 2-6 hours
When chyme leaves the stomach it goes where? through to the pyloric sphincter
The SI is the main site of what? digestion and absoption
What are the sections of the small intestine? duodenum jejunum ileum
What increases intestinal secretions and motility? vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) neuropeptide substance P, Motlin, CCK
Where are vasoactive intestinal polypeptides found? in neurons within the gut
What decreases intestinal secretions and motility? PYY, secretin, glucagon-like peptides
What are the 2 tissues that help to protect the GI tract? MALT (mucus) GALT (gut)
What is the pancreas? ductless endocrine cells that secrete hormones into the blood
The pancreas contains what type of enzymes? digestive that are produced by acinar exocrine cells
Pancreatic juices contain bicarbonate electrolytes pancreatic digestive enzymes
Contractions of the SI segmentation and peristaltic waves
Segmentation alternating contractions of circular smooth muscles, which breaks down and mixes intestinal contents
Peristaltic waves progressive contractions that move SI contents distally though the SI and toward the LI
Created by: starryeyes213